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Questions tagged [mathematics]

Use this tag for questions about mathematics relevant to quantum computing and/or quantum information theory. DO NOT use this tag for general mathematics questions.

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Correct way of expressing a measurement in a different computational basis

Sometimes we find that the result we want from a quantum algorithm is expressed in terms of a basis that is different from the usual computational basis, which I will call $$ B_C = \left\{ \lvert 0 \...
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1answer
35 views

Burnside Decomposition in Kuperberg's Hidden Shift

In "Another subexponential-time quantum algorithm for the dihedral hidden subgroup problem", Kuperberg writes that $\mathbb{C}[G]$ has a "Burnside decomposition" of $$\mathbb{C}[G]\cong \bigoplus_{V}...
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Are X-state separability and PPT- probabilities the same for the two-qubit, qubit-qutrit, two-qutrit, etc. states?

On p. 3 of "Separability Probability Formulas and Their Proofs for Generalized Two-Qubit X-Matrices Endowed with Hilbert-Schmidt and Induced Measures" (https://arxiv.org/abs/1501.02289), it is ...
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Reason for evaluating $a^x \bmod N$ from $x = 0$ to $N^2$

As per the Shor's algorithm, we need to evaluate $a^x \bmod N$ from $x = 0$ to $N^2$. What is the reason for this? Why can't we just evaluate for $N$, $2N$ or something like that?
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Hidden shift problem as a benchmarking function

I encountered the hidden shift problem as a benchmarking function to test the quantum algorithm outlined in this paper (the problem also features here). There are two oracle functions $f$, $f'$ : $...
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84 views

Quantum teleportation of a state, from one of two bases

I'm watching Christian Schaffner's talk on quantum position-based cryptography (link here) and have a question about a particular application of teleportation. At about the 16:40 mark, he seems to ...
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How are multi-qubit gates extended into larger registers? [duplicate]

Implementing a single-qubit gate in a multi-qubit register is relatively easy. For example, this gate: This is equivalent to $I \otimes H \otimes I$. If the $H$ gate was on the first bit, it would be ...
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Meaning of “diagonal to the computational basis”

I came across the term "diagonal to the computational basis" in my reading recently. I'm not entirely sure what this term means. I know that a diagonal matrix is one with only non-zero elements on the ...
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How to understand the operators for watermarking schemes?

Note: Cross-posted on Physics SE. I am reading a research article based on quantum image watermarking (PDF here). The authors have defined some unitary transforms for the watermarking schemes, which ...
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How to measure superposition coefficients to determine state?

There was a problem at the Winter 2019 Q# codeforces contest (that is now over), which I cannot find a mathematical solution for. The problem goes like this: You are given 3 qubits that can be in one ...
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What role do Hecke operators and ideal classes perform in “Quantum Money from Modular Forms?”

Cross-posted on MO The original ideas from the 70's/80's - that begat the [BB84] quantum key distribution - concerned quantum money that is unforgeable by virtue of the no-cloning theorem. A ...
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Why do we search for square roots of 1 in Shor's algorithm unlike the qudratic sieve?

In the quadratic sieve algorithm, the idea is to find $a$ and $a$ such that $a^2 \equiv b^2 \bmod n$. We need that $a\not\equiv \pm b \bmod n$. However, there the $c$ is not necessarily $1$. $\gcd(b \...
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42 views

Confusion regarding probability of period resulting in factoring

This is a sequel to How does $x^{\frac{r}{2}} \equiv -1 \pmod {p_i^{a_i}}$ follow from "if all these powers of $2$ agree"? Polynomial-Time Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete ...
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POVM three-qubit circuit for symmetric quantum states

I have been reading this paper but don't yet understand how to implement a circuit to determine in which state the qubit is not for a cyclic POVM. More specifically, I want to implement a cyclic POVM ...
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How does $x^{\frac{r}{2}} \equiv -1 \pmod {p_i^{a_i}}$ follow from “if all these powers of $2$ agree”?

Polynomial-Time Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer (Shor, 1995) [p. 15] To find a factor of an odd number $n$, given a method for computing the order $...
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76 views

Proof that Grover's operator can be written as $D_N=-H_n R_N H_n$

I am interested in showing the validity of the Grover operator. Now there are several ways to show it. One way is with complete induction. It has to be shown that the following relationship applies: $...
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Purity of mixed states as a function of radial distance from origin of Bloch ball

@AHusain mentions here that the purity of a qubit state can be expressed as a function of the radius from the center of a Bloch sphere. The state corresponding to the origin is maximally mixed whereas ...
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Homeomorphism or stereographic projection corresponding to the set of mixed states within the Bloch sphere

The Bloch sphere is homeomorphic to the Riemann sphere, and there exists a stereographic projection $\Bbb S^2\to \Bbb C_\infty$. But this only holds for pure states. To quote Wikipedia: Quantum ...
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What is the general variety corresponding to the Segre embedding for $n$-qubit systems?

It is well known that entanglement is precisely the difference between the Cartesian product and the tensor product. The space where every point corresponds to a state is the projective Hilbert space, ...
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Differentiate between local and global unitaries

Just like we have the PPT, NPT criteria for checking if states can be written in tensor form or not, is there any criteria, given the matrix of a unitary acting on 2 qubits, to check if it is local or ...
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Maps in bra-ket notation

As part of a course, I've been asked to write a map $C\rightarrow H,z \rightarrow zv$ for $v \in H=C^3\otimes C^2$, $v=[1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1]$ in bra-ket notation. However, I never written such a map ...
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Partial Transpose and Positive Operators

Question: For 2x2 and 2x3 systems, is the partial transpose the only positive but not completely positive operation that is possible? Why this came up: The criteria for detecting if a state $\rho$ is ...
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Why does $x\sqrt{1-x^2}$ enhance the ability to approximate analytical functions in quantum circuit learning?

In this paper Quantum Circuit Learning they say that the ability of a quantum circuit to approximate a function can be enhanced by terms like $x\sqrt{1-x^2}$ ($x\in[-1,1])$. Given inputs $\{x,f(x)\}$, ...
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Nielsen & Chuang Exercise 2.2 - Matrix representations in different input and output basis [duplicate]

This is a question in the Nielsen and Chuang textbook (Exercise 2.2). Suppose $V$ is a vector space with basis $|0\rangle$ and $|1\rangle$ and $A$ is a linear operator from $V \to V$ such that $...
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1answer
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Grover algorithm for more than one element

I am currently working on the Grover algorithm again. In many lectures and documents, as well as books, I noticed that there is always talk of looking for a single element of $N$ elements. Now I read ...
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Grover operator as a rotation matrix

I have seen that it is possible to represent the Grover iterator as a rotation matrix $G$. My question is, how can you do that exactly? So we say that $|\psi\rangle$ is a superposition of the states ...
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Quantum proof for the group non-membership problem

Group non-membership problem: Input: Group elements $g_1,..., g_k$ and $h$ of $G$. Yes: $h \not\in \langle g_1, ..., g_k\rangle$ No: $h\in \langle g_1, ..., g_k\rangle$ Notation: $\...
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How to translate matrix back into Dirac notation?

In Circuit composition and entangled states section of Wikipedia's article on Quantum logic gates the final result of a combined Hadamard gate and identity gate on $|\Phi^{+}\rangle$ state is: $ M \...
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Decomposition of a unitary matrix

Following is an excerpt from QCQI: I can understand that this matrix satisfies a unitary matrix. Also, intuitively, I am able to understand it. However, what is the proof that any given Unitary ...
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What are the constraints on a matrix that allow it to be “extended” into a unitary?

DaftWulie's answer to Extending a square matrix to a Unitary matrix says that extending a matrix into a unitary cannot be done unless there's constraints on the matrix. What are the constraints?
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Extending a square matrix to a unitary matrix

Suppose we have a square matrix $M$ of size $n\times n$. It is given that any element $M_{ij}$ of $M$ is a real number and satisfies $0 \leq M_{ij} \leq 1$, $\forall$ $i,j$. No other property for $M$ ...
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Is the set of classical-quantum states convex?

I read about the classical-quantum states in the textbook by Mark Wilde and there is an exercise that asks to show the set of classical-quantum states is not a convex set. But I have an argument to ...
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Quantum Nimber Maths

I am interested in quantum combinatorial games. According to the Wikipedia page on the Sprague-Grundy theorem: Every impartial game under the normal play convention is equivalent to a nimber ...
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Ways in which $\frac{1}{\sqrt 2} (|00\rangle + |11\rangle)$ can be expressed as $\frac{1}{\sqrt 2} (|uu\rangle + |vv\rangle)$

I want to find out what values $|u\rangle$ and $|v\rangle$ can take if I want to write $$\frac{1}{\sqrt 2} (|00\rangle + |11\rangle)$$ as $$\frac{1}{\sqrt 2} (|uu\rangle + |vv\rangle).$$ Say $$|u\...
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411 views

Shor's algorithm beginning

This may be a silly question but at the start of Shor's algorithm to factorise a number $N$ we need to find a number $n$ such that $N^{2} \leq 2^{n} \leq 2N^{2}$ Why does such a number $n$ exist for ...
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Clock matrix vs matrix clock

In the process of research leading up to my previous question, I found out about matrix, vector & logical clocks. The citation in the aforementioned question mentions clock and shift matrices. ...
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Partial Trace over a complicated looking state

In the Quantum Operations section in Nielsen and Chuang, (page 358 in the 2002 edition), they have the following equation: $$\varepsilon(\rho) = tr_{env} [U(\rho \otimes \rho_{env})U^\dagger]$$ They ...
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Problem with the mathematical formulation of “qubitization”

In this research paper, the authors introduce a new algorithm to perform Hamiltonian simulation. The beginning of their abstract is Given a Hermitian operator $\hat{H} = \langle G\vert \hat{U} \...
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How can we be sure that for every $A$, $A^\dagger A$ has a positive square root?

In the Polar Decomposition section in Nielsen and Chuang (page 78 in the 2002 edition), there is a claim that any matrix $A$ will have a decomposition $UJ$ where $J$ is positive and is equal to $\sqrt{...
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Is geometric algebra/calculus used in quantum computing?

This is really a question out of curiosity. I am aware that geometric algebra and geometric calculus provide simplifications in many aspects of physics. I'm wondering if this framework's usefulness ...
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Determining whether $P(ab|xy)$ factorizes in Bell experiments

Continuing from my previous (1, 2) questions on Brunner et al.'s paper on Bell nonlocality. Again, we have the following standard Bell experiment setup: where independent inputs $x,y \in \{0, 1\}$ ...
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1answer
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Projection operators and positive operators

I recently came across the concepts of operators. However with current my knowledge I am unable to solve the following problem.Given an operator $$\vec{A}=\frac{1}{2}(I+\vec{n}.\vec{\sigma})$$ where $\...
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How to properly write the action of a quantum gate implementing an operator $U$ on the superposition of its eigenvectors?

Let's say, that we are in the possession of a quantum gate, that is implementing the action of such an operator $$ \hat{U}|u \rangle = e^{2 \pi i \phi}|u\rangle $$ Moreover, let's say, that this ...
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Are the eigenvalues of an observable always -1 and 1?

What are the necessary & sufficient conditions for a matrix to be an observable, and what is the proof that any such matrix has eigenvalues -1 and 1 (if indeed that is the case)? I ask because in ...
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Quantum spin measurement

The state of a spin $\frac{1}{2}$ particle is $|0\rangle$ which is eigenstate of $\sigma_z$. What is the most generalized way to show that the results of any spin measurement along any direction in x-...
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Definition of locality in Bell experiments

Continuing from my previous question on Brunner et al.'s paper; so given a standard Bell experimental setup: where independent inputs $x,y \in \{0, 1\}$ decide the measurement performed by Alice &...
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3answers
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Bell nonlocality and conditional independence

I've been working through the paper Bell nonlocality by Brunner et al. after seeing it in user glS' answer here. Early on in the paper, the standard Bell experimental setup is defined: Where $x, y \...
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Is the computational basis for Hilbert space transfinite?

In What is the Computational Basis? gIS states: One also often speaks of "computational basis" for higher-dimensional states (qudits), in which case the same applies: a basis is called "...
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Simple proof that $(U \otimes V)(|x\rangle \otimes |y\rangle) = U|x\rangle \otimes V|y\rangle$?

This transformation comes up a lot during symbolic manipulation of quantum operations on state vectors. It's the reason why, for instance, $(X\otimes \mathbb{I}_2)|00\rangle = |10\rangle$ - it lets us ...
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Is there a general method to implement a 'greater than' quantum circuit?

I am interesting in finding a circuit to implement the operation $f(x) > y$ for an arbitrary value of $y$. Below is the circuit I would like to build: I use the first three qubits to encode $|x⟩$, ...