Questions tagged [mathematics]

Use this tag for questions about mathematics relevant to quantum computing and/or quantum information theory. DO NOT use this tag for general mathematics questions.

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4
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1answer
77 views

What is the structure of coefficients of $2^N\times 2^N$ unitary matrices decomposed in terms of the Pauli basis?

Any square $2^N\times 2^N$ matrix can be written as a sum of tensor products of pauli matrices. Eg a $8\times 8$ matrix can be written as $$U=\sum_{i_1,i_2,i_3}u_{i_1,i_2,i_3}\sigma_{i_1}\otimes\...
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2answers
80 views

Find a unitary to prepare state $|0\rangle$ to a specific vector

I am working with Variational Quantum Linear Solver (VQLS) algorithm, where it needs to prepare a control_b circuit. Assume b is 1d with $ 2^n $ elements in it. $$ {\bf Ax = b} \tag{1}$$ I need to ...
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2answers
244 views

Minimum number of 2 qubit gates to build any unitary

Any unitary $U$ acting on $N$ qubits can be decomposed in a finite product $U=U_1U_2...U_n$ where every $U_i$ acts on only 2 qubits, for example through decomposition in CNOT, phase shifts and 1 qubit ...
2
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1answer
57 views

Showing that $e^{i \sigma_z \otimes \sigma_z t} = \text{CNOT}(I \otimes e^{i \sigma_zt})\text{CNOT}$

While working on circuit construction for Hamiltonian simulation using this answer as reference, I'm unable to see how the following equation is true: $$ e^{i \sigma_z \otimes \sigma_z t} = \text{CNOT}...
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1answer
24 views

How to take the limits of the sandwiched Renyi divergences?

The sandwiched Renyi divergence is defined as $$\begin{equation} \tilde{D}_{\alpha}(\rho \| \sigma):=\frac{1}{\alpha-1} \log \operatorname{tr}\left[\left(\sigma^{\frac{1-\alpha}{2 \alpha}} \rho \...
3
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1answer
81 views

Can I use the Lie product formula to simulate the Hamiltonian of an adjacency matrix by using the QPE to take Nth roots of permutation matrices?

I have gotten some great help recently on Hamiltonian simulation, and am interested in using Hamiltonian simulation to explore (classical) random walks on large graphs, but I'm running up against ...
6
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1answer
394 views

Are nearly all pure two-qubit state entangled?

I am using the code below, utilizing QETLAB's RandomStateVector(4) and IsPPT, to generate a random state and to judge whether the state is entangled or separable: ...
0
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1answer
50 views

RZZ calculation: Why does the equation and the circuit correspond?

i found this tutorial about MaxCut and QAOA from pennylane and i do not understand how the equation and the circuit should be equal. When i do the math i come to this conclusion: (result of CNOT - ...
3
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0answers
78 views

Is there a way to write down the eigenstates of this two-qubit density matrix?

I am considering the density matrix which represents an arbitrary state for a pair of qubits. When written out in terms of the Pauli operators, this is as follows (certain terms vanish for another ...
1
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1answer
60 views

Wick rotation of the Schrödinger equation

Studying the following paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41534-019-0187-2.pdf Trying to figure out how $ E_T$ shows up from (1) and (2). Any suggestion or guidance would be appreciated. We ...
5
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1answer
99 views

Prove that rank one projectors have the same partial trace iff they differ by a local unitary operation

In nielsen and chuang's QCQI book, there is a theorem called Unitary freedom in the ensemble for density matrices, which states that the sets $|\psi_i\rangle$ and $|\phi_i\rangle$ generate the same ...
5
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2answers
240 views

How universal is the Toffoli gate for classical reversible computing?

It is easy to see that no finite set of classical reversible gates can be strictly universal (without ancilla) for classical reversible computation: for any reversible gate on $n$ bits, in its action ...
8
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1answer
124 views

Can we simulate the Hamiltonian for the Rubik's Cube with "nth-root of SWAP" gates?

I'm interested in, but confused about, local Hamiltonian simulation. I don't yet have enough intuition regarding even the approach set forth by Lloyd in 1997. I think Lloyd's recipe is to repeatedly ...
1
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1answer
63 views

How to know state coresponding to -1 or 1 for multi qubits VQE?

Can help to explain how to get -1 and 1 for 2 qubits VQE with $\langle XY\rangle$ since we have 4 states $|00\rangle,|01\rangle,|10\rangle,|11\rangle$? For the case of 1 qubit, it is straight forward ...
2
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1answer
64 views

What happens if a Pauli $X$ gate is applied to part of a Bell state?

I have started to learn about the mathematics behind ebits and I have a question. Assume $\color{red}{\text{Alice}}$ and $\color{blue}{\text{Bob}}$ share the following ebit: $\begin{align}\vert\Phi^+ \...
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2answers
136 views

Confusion regarding the tensor product usage in book

I have recently started with quantum computing, and I've found great book about it - Learn Quantum Computing with IBM Quantum Experience, which explains a lot of things in quite a simple language. ...
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0answers
87 views

What is the justification for the use of this arbitrary post-processing vector?

I am reading through this paper which describes the use of a post-processing vector $\vec{c}$ with elements having values of $(-1,0,1)$. In equation 3 they give their solution as a linear combination ...
1
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1answer
32 views

Vector math of applying an X-gate on an $|i\rangle$ basis state

It is well known that the X-gate will apply a rotation about the x-axis on the bloch sphere. Knowing this, the $|i\rangle$ state should be converted to the $|-i\rangle$ state on the application of ...
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2answers
82 views

Tensor product and Dirac notation

Can someone shows me how to proof this equality: $\frac{1}{\sqrt2}(\alpha|000⟩+\alpha|011⟩ + \beta|100⟩ + \beta|111⟩ )$ = $ \frac{1}{2\sqrt2}[(|00⟩+|11⟩) \otimes (\alpha|0⟩+\beta|1⟩) + (|01⟩+|10⟩) \...
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2answers
56 views

Is ($|+⟩$$⟨0|$ + $|-⟩$$⟨1|$ ) similar to ($|0⟩$$⟨+|$ + $|1⟩$$⟨-|$ )?

Is ($|+⟩$$⟨0|$ + $|-⟩$$⟨1|$ ) similar to ($|0⟩$$⟨+|$ + $|1⟩$$⟨-|$ ) ? Can we just reversed it this way when doing Dirac manipulation? I try to calculate HZH = X and i need to reverse the second H
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1answer
55 views

Steps to apply Hadamard gate to $n$ qubits

Can someone shows me, step by step, how to apply Hadamard and output the result?
5
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2answers
282 views

What are the conditions ensuring a two-qubit density matrix is positive semidefinite?

I've seen some papers writing $$\rho=\frac{1}{4}\left(\mathbb{I} \otimes \mathbb{I}+\sum_{k=1}^{3} a_{k} \sigma_{k} \otimes \mathbb{I}+\sum_{l=1}^{3} b_{l} \mathbb{I} \otimes \sigma_{l}+\sum_{k, l=1}^{...
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0answers
30 views

Simplifying equation for two qubit syndrome extraction code

In the paper Quantum Error Correction: An Introductory Guide, the author gives the following formula for a simple two qubit code (eq. 19 on the paper). $$ E|\psi\rangle_L|0\rangle_A \xrightarrow{\text{...
2
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2answers
178 views

How to understand combination states vs pure/mixed states?

I've learned that representing a combination of two states, I simply need to take the tensor product of the states. For example: $$\left|\Psi\right>=\alpha_0\left|0\right>+\beta_0\left|1\right&...
0
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1answer
57 views

Finding the measurement basis for single qubit with given probability of outcome $0$

I have the general state of a single qubit $|\psi \rangle = \alpha|0\rangle + \beta|1\rangle $. Assume I am given a probability $p$ such that $0 < p <1$. Now I need to find the basis in which ...
2
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3answers
143 views

Is every single-qubit unitary just a rotation around some unit vector on the Bloch sphere?

I remember reading this somewhere... Is there an elegant proof for this?
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0answers
19 views

Penalty Function for XOR gate

I was reading a paper on Gates for Adiabatic Quantum Computer. In the paper, there were different penalty functions already given in the form of the following table: I do not quite understand the ...
0
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1answer
66 views

Strange binomial formula for operators?

Does the binomial formula $(a+b)^n=\sum_i C_n^ia^ib^{n-i}$ still work when $n$ is replaced by operator $\hat{n}$(an operator), where $a$ and $b$ are numbers? Since it's not the normal binomial formula ...
2
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0answers
73 views

Is decomposing high-dimensional states in terms of Pauli matrices impossible?

I've been trying to decompose a 3x3 density matrix with 3-dimensional Pauli matrices but it doesn't work for all matrices. For example, the density matrix of the state $|0\rangle + |1\rangle + |2\...
0
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1answer
28 views

In the context of block-encoding, what does $|0\rangle\otimes I$ represent?

New to quantum and ran into the block-encoding. Having a bit of trouble understanding $|0\rangle \otimes I$. $|0\rangle$ is just a vector but $I$ is an $n$ by $n$ matrix? Not clear how vector can be ...
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1answer
150 views

What is the eigenvalue distribution of arbitrary unitary matrices?

I had a question regarding the nature of the eigenvalue distribution of unitary matrices. Searching for the answer I found that the unitary matrices which are sampled randomly have a defined ...
2
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1answer
96 views

How is the probability of success for Simon's algorithm determined?

In step 3 of Simon's algorithm, we are told to "Repeat until there are enough such $y$’s that we can classically solve for $s$." It then goes on: The above are from this course notes. I am ...
2
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1answer
49 views

How to sample vectors close to the minimum eigenvector of a unitary matrix?

Say that we have an unknown $2^{n}\times2^{n}$ unitary matrix $U$ with eigenvectors $|v_{i}\rangle$ and eigenvalues $e^{2\pi j \theta_{i}}$and we want to sample a vector, say $|\phi \rangle$. Since ...
2
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0answers
35 views

Marginal output probability of first bit for constant-depth circuits

Consider a constant depth $1\text{D}$ quantum circuit, which is applied to the input state $|0^{n}\rangle$, and whose output is measured in the standard basis. You can assume that the gates of the ...
4
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1answer
104 views

Creating orthogonal quantum states from a set of given (possibly linearly independent) quantum states

I want to understand how to orthogonalize a system of qubits. Suppose I have $n$ sets of quantum states like $$\{ |1_i\rangle|2_i\rangle|3_i\rangle \cdots|k_i\rangle \mid i=1 \dots n \}$$ where $i=1, \...
2
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0answers
98 views

Upper bound on the distance between two distinct orthonormal vectors

I need to prove that if $\phi$ and $\psi$ are distinct vectors of an orthonormal set then $|| \phi - \psi|| \leq \sqrt{2} $. Going by the definition of norm, $|| \phi - \psi||^2$ is the inner product $...
10
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1answer
157 views

Who was the first to call the phase gates $P(\pi/2)$ and $P(\pi/4)$ the $S$ and $T$ gates, and were they motivated by generators of the modular group?

Within the theory of quantum gates, a common pair of single-qubit phase gates are the $P(\pi/2)=S$ and $P(\pi/4)=T$ gates, with $$S= \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & i \end{bmatrix},\:T = \begin{...
2
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0answers
12 views

Can you make anyons in 3 dimensions using rings?

I heard that anyons can only be made in 2 dimensions because when you visualize the spacetime diagram of a 2-dimensional system with point particles, you can get braids, but if you do the same with a ...
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0answers
43 views

What is a projection operation and how does it work?

I am reading about the Quantum Pigeon Hole Principle and having trouble understanding how the states are measured. Specifically from this paper. From equation (4) through equation (7).
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1answer
55 views

How to compute the eigenvector of this complex matrix in Grover's algorithm?

We know that SO(3) matrix stands for the proper rotation in 3D space. But when I read this paper, there is a SO(3) matrix stands for the general query matrix of Grover's algorithm in SO(3) form: $$ \...
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2answers
85 views

Why is there no angle for the $z$ axis in the Bloch sphere?

I see that in Bloch spheres, there is an angle for the $x$ and $y$ axes but not for the $z$ axis. Why?
2
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1answer
64 views

In the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, why is the resulting amplitude for the constant and balanced cases $\pm 1$ and $0$, respectively?

I am currently learning from Nielsen and Chuang and I am currently learning about Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. However, I am stumped with the mathematics of the algorithm at the following section: I ...
3
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1answer
160 views

A question from Aaronson 2004 paper

In Aaronson's paper about the efficient simulation of a stabilizer circuit (https://journals.aps.org/pra/pdf/10.1103/PhysRevA.70.052328), I have a problem with finding the reason why the following ...
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0answers
94 views

Expectation value of a quantum circuit [closed]

The expectation value of an operator $A$ is defined by this equation $\langle A \rangle_\psi = \sum_j a_j |\langle \psi | \phi_j \rangle|^2 $. My first question is does it mean that the expectation ...
2
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0answers
41 views

Can Grover's algorithm be applied to differential equation solving?

As I understand Grover's algorithm, given the output of a black-box function, can be used to find the corresponding input (or set of inputs if the function is not one-to-one). It is therefore ...
0
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2answers
85 views

How do I apply a matrix to a ket state?

If we have the following matrix: $$\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\begin{pmatrix}1&1&0&0\\ 1&-1&0&0\\ 0&0&1&-1\\ 0&0&1&1\end{pmatrix}$$ How do we find the output for ...
3
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1answer
41 views

Unit vanishes in the Quantum Cramer-Rao Bound?

The Quantum Cramer-Rao Bound states that the precision we can achieve is bounded below by: $$(\Delta \theta)^2\ge\frac{1}{mF_Q[\varrho,H]},$$ where $m$ is the number of independent repetitions, and $...
3
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0answers
51 views

Modeling building blocks for quantum computation

If I would design library for quantum computation I would naively consider a sequences of entangled qudits with unit length as a building blocks. I.e., unit length elements from $$\mathbb{C}^{d_{1}}\...
4
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0answers
101 views

Is the No-Cloning Theorem Violated in $C^\ast$-Circuit Models?

In Cleve, et al., the authors discuss self-embezzlement of a catalyst state $\psi$, making the statement on page 2, [B]y local operations, state $\psi\otimes(\vert 0 \rangle \otimes \vert 0 \rangle)$ ...
3
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1answer
69 views

How do I show that $R_z(\theta)=e^{-iZ\theta/2}$?

I know that an $R_z (\theta)$ gate is equivalent to the unitary transformation $e^{-iZ * \theta/2}$ but I'm not sure how we get there. I know that for every Hermitian matrix there is a corresponding ...

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