Questions tagged [mathematics]

Use this tag for questions about mathematics relevant to quantum computing and/or quantum information theory. DO NOT use this tag for general mathematics questions.

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1answer
39 views

Show algebraically that $U|0\rangle\otimes |0\rangle+U|1\rangle\otimes|1\rangle=|0\rangle\otimes U^T|0\rangle+|1\rangle\otimes U^T|1\rangle$

Suppose that Alice applies a unitary operator $U$ with real entries to her qubit in an EPR pair $|\beta\rangle=\frac{1}{\sqrt 2}(|00\rangle+|11\rangle)$. Is this the same as having Bob apply $U^T$ to ...
2
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1answer
32 views

How would I compute a density matrix of a complex qubit mixed state?

I am currently reading Nielsen & Chuang, and one of the questions asks to calculate a density matrix with the following mixed state, $$ \frac{1}{9}\begin{bmatrix} 5 & 1 & −i \\ 1 & 2 &...
2
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1answer
36 views

How would I compute a density matrix of a 2 qubit mixed state?

I am currently reading Nielsen & Chuang, and one of the questions asks to calculate a density matrix with the following mixed states, how would I do this? $$ |00> \;with \;probability \; 2/4 \\ ...
2
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1answer
31 views

How do I represent my 3-qubit state in the computational basis?

I have taken the tensor product of $|0\rangle \otimes |-\rangle \otimes |+\rangle$ which resulted in the matrix $$\begin{bmatrix} 1/2\\ 1/2 \\ -1/2 \\ -1/2 \\ 0 \\ 0\\ 0\\ 0\\ \end{bmatrix}.$$ How ...
3
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1answer
54 views

What does the identity operator represent when computing $\langle\varphi|I\otimes Z|\varphi\rangle$?

Consider a single qubit state $|\varphi\rangle$ and a hamiltonian $H = Z$. Evaluating $\langle \varphi | H | \varphi \rangle$ corresponds to a measurement of $|\varphi\rangle$ in the computational ...
2
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1answer
154 views
+50

Condition that a tripartite/multipartite qubit state does/does not admit a Schmidt decomposition?

I saw answers such as this and this which provide examples of tripartite system that don't take a Schmidt decomposition, but I wonder if there's an explicit condition that can tell whether a state is ...
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0answers
37 views

Will there be any difference in solution for a weighted and unweighted graph? I mean is there any relation between weight and solution?

I was working on max-cut problem. To do I have been given a graph of unweighted version, and I have to convert it into weighted version. I did it using qiskit. Now I was playing around the code, hence ...
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2answers
43 views

Is there a simplified formula for the adjoint of the outer product of ket and bra?

I was reading about measurements and got to some operator like this: $$\left| 0\rangle \langle 0\right| $$ Is there any form I can apply when I have to calculate $$ \left( \left| 0\rangle \langle 0\...
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2answers
58 views

Find the unitary implementing the transformation $|0\rangle\to\frac1{\sqrt2}(|0\rangle+|1\rangle),|1\rangle\to\frac1{\sqrt2}(|0\rangle-|1\rangle)$ [closed]

I have found a question for finding the Unitary operator for the following transformation: I found the solution as well. But I didn't understand how they got the solution!
4
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2answers
48 views

Are the two ways of interpreting the expression $(|a\rangle\otimes|b\rangle)(\langle c|\otimes\langle d|)(|e\rangle\otimes |f\rangle)$ equivalent?

Reading Nielsen and Chuang, I am under the impression that a linear operator on the tensor product can be written in two ways: \begin{equation} (\left|a\right> \otimes \left|b\right>)(\left<c\...
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3answers
336 views

Why is the transpose of a density matrix positive and trace preserving?

With density matrix $\rho=\sum_{a,b=0}^1\rho_{a,b}|a\rangle\langle b|$ and it's transpose $\rho^T=\sum_{a,b=0}^1\rho_{a,b}|b\rangle\langle a|$. How to confirm that $\rho^T$ is positive and trace ...
1
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1answer
69 views

Why isn't $\{1,2,3\}$ well ordered? [closed]

I was reading the book "Quantum Computing Since Democritus". "The set of ordinal numbers has the important property of being well ordered,which means that every subset has a minimum ...
1
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1answer
31 views

Formula for a single unit gate acting on a lexicographically represented state

I've been trying to find in textbooks a discussion on the action of arbitrary single qubit gates on a lexicographic state. That is, given an operator $G_{l}= 1\otimes 1...\otimes G \otimes ... \...
3
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1answer
73 views

How do I determine if a given pure two-qubit state is separable?

I'm trying to self-study some topics about quantum computing and I came across a topic of state separability. Talking about that, I wanted to determine separability on the following state (from Qiskit ...
7
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1answer
61 views

what matrix operations have better known time complexity on a quantum computer?

I'm exploring quantum computers for a semester project. I'm mainly interested in making faster matrix calculations than a regular computer. I was wondering what arithmetic operations (irrespective of ...
2
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2answers
78 views

Qiskit order of multiplication and tensor product

Section 2.3 of the Qiskit textbook shows us that $$ CNOT|0+\rangle \ = \ \frac{1}{\sqrt2}(|00\rangle + |11\rangle)$$ which I was able to translate to a circuit as such: ...
3
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3answers
66 views

How does one create the unitary sending $|0\rangle$ into a target quantum state?

The Hadamard gate allows us to construct an equal superposition of states. If one wants to construct an arbitrary superposition e.g. $\alpha\vert 0\rangle + \beta\vert 1\rangle + ..$, how does one ...
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2answers
469 views

How to check if a quantum circuit can be constructed for a given matrix representation?

Let's say I have a matrix representation, e.g. $$ \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \end{pmatrix}. $$ How ...
2
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1answer
52 views

How is $\sum_i\langle i|M|i\rangle$ correlated to $\mathrm{tr}(M)$?

In the book Quantum computation and quantum information, it says to evaluate $tr(A|\psi\rangle\langle\psi|)$ using Gram-Schmidt procedure to extend $|\psi\rangle$ to an orthonormal basis $|i\rangle$ ...
3
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2answers
65 views

Is a projective measurements over a superposition of eigenstates possible?

All observables admit a spectral decomposition in terms of projectors $P_m$ into the eigenspace corresponding to the eigenvalue $m$. So given for example a collection of kets $|0\rangle, |1\rangle,...,...
5
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4answers
107 views

Derivation of the identity $\sum_j p_j \langle \psi_j|M|\psi_j \rangle = \sum_j p_j \operatorname{tr}\left(|\psi_j \rangle \langle \psi_j|M\right)$

For measurement, we know $$\langle M \rangle = \sum_j p_j \langle \psi_j|M|\psi_j \rangle = \sum_j p_j \operatorname{tr}\left(|\psi_j \rangle \langle \psi_j|M\right).$$ My question is, how can we go ...
2
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2answers
60 views

What is the relation between observables (as defined in the measure-theoretic framework) and POVMs?

A POVM is typically defined as a collection of operators $\{\mu(a)\}_{a\in\Sigma}$ with $\mu(a)\in\mathrm{Pos}(\mathcal X)$ positive operators such that $\sum_{a\in\Sigma}\mu(a)=I$, where I take here $...
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1answer
50 views

Uniqueness of Density Operator

I have been reading "Introduction to Quantum Information Science" by Masahito Hayashi, Satoshi Ishizaka,Akinori Kawachi, Gen Kimura and Tomohiro Ogawa; Springer Publication. I'm currently in ...
4
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3answers
103 views

Writing state $ |\Psi⟩ =\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}|00⟩+\frac{i}{\sqrt{2}}|01⟩$ as separate qubits (qiskit textbook)

While going through the IBM qiskit textbook online, I came across the following question in section 2.2: Write the state: $ |\Psi⟩ =\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}|00⟩+\frac{i}{\sqrt{2}}|01⟩$ as two separate ...
2
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2answers
39 views

How to find the normalization factor of the eigenvectors of the $\sigma_x$ Pauli gate?

I'm trying to calcaute the eigenstates for the $\sigma_x$ gate, and I can follow the process up to finding eigenvalues $\pm 1$, but I don't understand where the $\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}$ coefficient comes ...
0
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1answer
46 views

Compute the squared overlap between different given qubit states

I was checking this problem from the book. And here is an example, but I think it's wrong. If it is not wrong can you please explain how did they derive it? As per my workout, it should be one. But It ...
2
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1answer
93 views

In a bipartite system $AB$, why does the entanglement negativity $\mathcal{N}(\rho^{T_A})$ measure the entanglement between $A$ and $B$?

Consider a system composed of two subsystems $A$ and $B$ living in $\mathcal{H}=\mathcal{H}_A \otimes \mathcal{H}_B$. The density matrix of the system $AB$ is defined to be $\rho$. The entanglement ...
0
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0answers
29 views

RAC for XOR functions

I need the optimal encoding protocol for 3 $\rightarrow$ 1 Classical RAC such that the receiver is able to retrieve any one of the initial bits, as well as the XOR combinations of those bits. ( If a, ...
5
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1answer
124 views

In Nielsen and Chuang, how can $\frac{1}{2(e-1)}$ result from $\frac12\int_{e-1}^{2^{t-1}-1}dl\frac{1}{l^2}$?

From Nielsen and Chuang's book: $\textit{Quantum computation and quantum information}$, how can (5.34) equal (5.33)? I.e. $$\dfrac{1}{2} \int_{e-1}^{2^{t-1}-1} dl \dfrac{1}{l^2} = \dfrac{1}{2(e-1)}.$$...
2
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1answer
75 views

Discrepancy in inner product between tensor products

I have noticed one identity in case of tensor product from this post. But I can't understand why it is true. $\langle v_i| \otimes \langle w_j| \cdot |w_k\rangle \otimes |v_m\rangle = \langle v_i|v_m\...
1
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2answers
114 views

Inequality in overlap of quantum states

For quantum states $\vert\psi_1\rangle, \vert\psi_2\rangle, \vert\phi\rangle$, is it true that: $$\tag{1}\langle \phi\vert\psi_1\rangle\langle\psi_1\vert\phi\rangle\langle \phi\vert\psi_2\rangle\...
2
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2answers
79 views

What is $\sum_{i}\langle i \vert U \vert j\rangle$ for unitary $U$?

The question is basically the title but given a unitary operator $U$ and a computational basis, can we say anything about the complex number below? $$c = \sum_{i}\langle i \vert U \vert j\rangle$$ I ...
1
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1answer
51 views

How does the CPTP constraint reflect on the matrix representation of a qubit channel in the Pauli basis?

Let us write the possible states of a qubit in the Bloch representation as $$\newcommand{\bs}[1]{{\boldsymbol{#1}}}\rho_{\bs r}\equiv \frac{I+\bs r\cdot\bs \sigma}{2},$$ where $\bs\sigma=(\sigma_1,\...
1
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1answer
62 views

How can I verify that the Pauli group is a group? And is it abelian? [duplicate]

So how can I verify that the Pauli Group is a Group? Then furthermore, Abelian? And then to sum it up, the order of the group. Trying to do some research into the group but I can't find much about it.
3
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1answer
53 views

How can we upper bound the norm of a partial trace?

Suppose we have the normalised states $|\phi_{1}\rangle,|\phi_{2}\rangle \in A \otimes B$ where $A$ and $B$ are $d$-dimensional complex vector spaces. Suppose $|\langle\phi_{2}|\phi_{1}\rangle| < ...
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1answer
43 views

How to calculate the exponential of all elements in an input array using qiskit? [closed]

How can I perform an operation similar to Numpy.exp() in qiskit?
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0answers
97 views

Is the set of two-qubit absolutely separable states convex?

Companion question on MathOverflow Let us order the four nonnegative eigenvalues, summing to 1, of a two-qubit density matrix ($\rho$) as \begin{equation} 1 \geq x \geq y \geq z \geq (1-x-y-z) \geq 0. ...
4
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1answer
87 views

Difference between change of basis in bra-ket notation and matrix notation

In matrix notation, say I have the vector $\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}$. It is currently represented in the computational basis $\{\begin{bmatrix} 1 \\ 0\end{bmatrix}, \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1\...
1
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1answer
36 views

What are the physical meanings of the outer product when writing expressions for unitary gates?

I'm really confused with the interpretation of those equations: $1.$ The evolution of states under unitary operations can be expressed as $$ U = \sum_k\exp(i\phi_k)|\psi_k\rangle\langle\psi_k| $$ $2.$ ...
1
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1answer
81 views

What is the difference between the states $i|1\rangle$ and $|+i\rangle$?

I am new to Quantum computing. I see $|\mbox{+}i\rangle$ state maps to y-axis on bloch sphere ($\theta = 90$ degree and $\phi = 90$ degree) while $i|1\rangle$ maps on x-axis, $i|1\rangle$ is stated as ...
2
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1answer
38 views

Pseudoinverse of a quantum state

The max-relative entropy between two states is defined as $D_{\max}(\rho\|\sigma) = \log\lambda$, where $\lambda$ is the smallest real number that satisfies $\rho\leq \lambda\sigma$, where $A\leq B$ ...
3
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2answers
127 views

Prove that the trace norm is dual to the spectral norm

Suppose $A\in L(X,Y)$. $||\cdot||$ denotes spectral norm and denotes the largest singular value of a matrix, i.e. the largest eigenvalue of $\sqrt{A^*A}$. $||\cdot||_{tr}$ denotes trace norm. We have ...
2
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1answer
66 views

Measuring Pauli strings using generators

I am trying to find the ground state of a Hamiltonian using VQE. I have decomposed the Hamiltonian into a set of Pauli strings. To decrease the number of actual measurements that has to be done, can I ...
2
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0answers
36 views

How to implement the Mixer of Quantum Alternating Operator Ansatz for Max-Independent-Set

I am trying to implement the Mixer of the Max-Independent Set from The Quantum Alternating Operator Ansatz. From this paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.03489.pdf in Chapter 4.2 page 15 to 17. For ...
6
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1answer
143 views

Bob applies a projector - what happens to eigenvalues of Alice's reduced state?

Suppose Alice and Bob share a state $\rho_{AB}$. Let us denote the reduced states as $\rho_A = \text{Tr}_B(\rho_{AB})$ and $\rho_B = \text{Tr}_A(\rho_{AB})$. Bob applies a projector so the new global ...
0
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1answer
36 views

Basis Change Substitution

question: "A spin right $\frac{1}{\sqrt 2}(|0\rangle + |1\rangle)$ is sent through a Hadamard gate, creating the superposition of $|+\rangle$ and $|-\rangle$, given by $\frac{1}{\sqrt 2}(|+\...
5
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1answer
83 views

What is the intuition behind “states with support on orthogonal subspaces”?

I'm sure I don't fully understand support, but I am having trouble seeing how it connects to things like density operators. I have an idea that it means, according to Wikipedia: "In mathematics, ...
3
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1answer
57 views

How do I prove that $\newcommand{\tr}{\operatorname{Tr}}\tr(A \sqrt{B} A \sqrt{B}) = \tr\Big[\Big(\sqrt{\sqrt{B}} A \sqrt{\sqrt{B}}\Big)^2\Big]$?

Let's say I have 2 density operators $A$ and $B$. Now, here is what I am trying to calculate: $$\newcommand{\tr}{\operatorname{trace}} \tr(A \sqrt{B} A \sqrt{B}). $$ I saw that this trace can be ...
0
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1answer
55 views

How to force a matrix to be unitary given constraints on some of the elements? [duplicate]

I am working with a matrix of the following form: $$ A =\begin{pmatrix} a_{11} & Q & \ldots & Q\\ a_{21} & Q & \ldots & Q\\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots\\ ...
1
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1answer
36 views

Why is the VQE insensitive to noise?

I was going through the Grove documentation on the Variational Quantum Eigensolver. In one of the demonstrations with noisy gates, it is seen that resulting eigenvalue is quite close to the expected ...

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