Questions tagged [mathematics]

Use this tag for questions about mathematics relevant to quantum computing and/or quantum information theory. DO NOT use this tag for general mathematics questions.

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Can a Kraus representation be always an identity to any operator?

In the textbook “Quantum Computation and Quantum Information” by Nielsen and Chuang, it is stated that there exists a set of unitaries $U_i$ and a probability distribution $p_i$ for any matrix A, $\...
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Step-by-step passages in calculation

I would like to better understand some passages in a paper (Appendix A): Properties of Tensor Product Bilinearity: $A\otimes(B+ C) = A \otimes B + A \otimes C $ Mixed-product property: $(A\otimes B)(...
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How do you embed a POVM matrix in a Unitary?

In QuantumKatas Measurement Task 2.3 - Peres-Wooter's Game, we are given 3 states A,B and C. We construct a POVM of these states. But how do we convert that POVM into a Unitary that we can apply. ...
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Is the tensor product of two states commutative?

I'm reading "Quantum Computing Expained" of David McMahon, and encountered a confusing concept. In the beginning of Chapter 4, author described the tensor product as below: To construct a ...
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2answers
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Find the probability of a measurement outcome in terms of the coefficients of the state

Suppose we have a quantum state $|\psi \rangle$ of $n$ qubits, where $|\psi\rangle=\sum_{x∈\{0,1\}^n}\alpha_x |x\rangle$,and we measure the first qubit of $|\psi\rangle$ in the computational basis. ...
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Computing variance under the action of a unitary operator

I wish to calculate the expectation and variance for an observable on a particular qubit of a multi qubit quantum state. I'm using a quantum computing simulation library which allows me to apply ...
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How do you decompose an arbitrary quantum state into its corresponding projection subspaces such that their direct sum is the quantum state?

I understand that every Hilbert space $H$ can be decomposed into two mutually orthogonal subspaces $H_1$ and $H_2$ whose direct sum is $H$. Therefore, every vector $v\in H$ can be decomposed into $...
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1answer
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Proof of QFT for a Periodic Function

For Mosca Keynes, ex 7.1.5: You are asked to prove: $\text{QFT}^{-1}_{mr}|\phi_{r,b}\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{r}}\sum_{k=0}^{r-1}e^{-2\pi i \frac{b}{r}k}|mk\rangle$ where $|\phi_{r,b}\rangle = \...
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120 views

What are boost and shift operators and why are they called so?

In some texts I see $X$ and $Z$ Pauli operators as being said as boost and shift operators respectively. But I came across some text that defines its own operators, namely: $$ X \vert j\rangle = \...
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How to get the stabilizer group for a given state?

Let's say we have the GHZ state with 3 qubits: $$ |\mathrm{GHZ}\rangle = \dfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\Big(|000\rangle + |111\rangle \Big)$$ I want to find the stabilizer group of this state, that is, the $...
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How do I add 1+1 using a photonic computer?

A similar question has been previously asked & has an excellent answer discussing half, full & ripple carry adders. I am curious to find out how these adders would be constructed in the ...
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Pauli Identity Using Tensor Network Notation

I am trying to understand the meaning of the equation shown in the above image taken from this paper, but I am unfamiliar with the tensor network notation. My current strategy is trying to write down ...
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1answer
42 views

Why does the state fidelity satisfy $\operatorname{tr}|\sqrt{\rho}\sqrt{\sigma}|=\operatorname{tr}\sqrt{\sigma^{1/2}\rho\sigma^{1/2}}$?

Given the the two states $\rho$ and $\sigma$ of a quantum system, with $|\psi\rangle$ and $|\varphi\rangle$ as their purification respectively, the fidelity is defined as: $$F(\rho,\sigma)=\max_{|\...
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Rearrangement of qubits in Quantum Teleportation Protocol

I have been reading Quantum Teleportation (Pg. 27) from Nielsen and Chuang and noticed that after the Hadamard operation, the state obtained was re-written by regrouping the terms to obtain the ...
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Correct Formulation of N&C Exercise 4.11 and other textbooks misquoting

Inspired by the comments in this question How to approximate $Rx$, $Ry$ and $Rz$ gates?, there is the errata for question 4.11 pg 176 in N&C. The original form states that for any non parallel $m$ ...
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Are superpositions of an infinite number of states realizable?

I first encounted this idea in Constructing finite dimensional codes with optical continuous variables where it mentions "superpositions of an infinite number of infinitely squeezed states" in the ...
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3answers
171 views

What does the minus sign in the four bell states represent?

I am in grade 11, so answers as simple as possible. I understand that in quantum teleportation, the bell measurement must be made on the teleportee and the sender, and I understand that yields one of ...
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59 views

Expressing a term of an $n$-qubit Hamiltonian in terms of Pauli operators

Consider a $2^n\times 2^n$ Hermitian matrix $M$ containing up to two non-zero elements, which are $1$ (so, either $M_{ii}=1$ for some $i$, or $M_{ij}=M_{ji} = 1$ for some $i$ and $j$). Each such ...
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1answer
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Joint Concavity of (Root) Fidelity

I have some problem in understanding the proof of the concavity of root fidelity given in Chapter 9.2 of Mark M. Wilde's "Quantum Information Theory". Here, the fidelity is defined by $F(\...
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1answer
28 views

Universality and coverage of irrational multiples of $2\pi$ In $[0, 2\pi)$

This related to the proof of universality (pg 196),and partially related to the question Why is Deutsch's gate universal?, however i'm trying to workout a more rigorous proof and understanding of ...
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1answer
49 views

Effect of Pauli X gate on minus state using bloch sphere

As I understood, the X gate flips the state around : $X(|0\rangle) = |1\rangle$. It can also be visualized with a $\pi$ rotation around the $x$ axis in the Bloch sphere. I have no problem with that. ...
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277 views

Is it right to think of superposition as just angle?

Based on my current understanding, a qubit is represented as a vector $(a, b)$ which satisfy $a^2 + b^2 = 1$. Classical bit one can be represented as $(0, 1)$ and bit zero can be represented as $(1, ...
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Proving that Partial Trace is a Quantum Operation

I am referring to Nielsen and Chuang Quantum Computation and Quantum Information 10th Anniversary Edition Textbook, Chapter 8.3. A linear operator $E_i:H_{QR}\longrightarrow H_Q $ is defined by: $$...
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Prove that for one-qubit unitaries $\text{Tr}|U-V|=2\max_\psi\|(U-V)|\psi\rangle\|$

Given two 1-qubit rotations $U=R_n (\theta)$ and $V=R_m(\phi)$ with $n$ and $m$ vectors defining a rotation and $\theta, \phi$ angles, define $D(U,V)=Tr(|U-V|)$ where $|U-V|=\sqrt{(U-V)^\dagger (U-V)}$...
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1answer
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How to correctly define $U_\omega$ for Grover's search algorithm

I am working on Grover's algorithm and I am trying to implement the algorithm. I am following the Microsoft quantum katas and I finished and did everything correctly. I am trying to implement the ...
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Is Quantum Computing a problem for Cryptography?

How can we use Quantum Computing to break a Cryptosystem like RSA or AES-256? Can we use Quantum Computing to solve difficult mathematical problems like Discrete Logarithms or Prime Number ...
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1answer
40 views

Projection is trace-decreasing?

I'm studying Mark Wilde's "Quantum Information Theory" and the author sometimes use the inequality $\mathrm{Tr}(\prod_\mathcal{H'}Y) \leq \mathrm{Tr}(Y)$ where $Y\in \mathcal{H}'$ is a density matrix ...
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1answer
67 views

What is infinite squeezing?

I am working my through the Strawberry Fields documentation & the section on state teleportation states: Here, qumodes $q1$ and $q2$ are initially prepared as (the unphysical) infinitely ...
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1answer
31 views

Identity for linear codes and their duals: why do we have $\sum_y (-1)^{x\cdot y}=|C|\delta_{x\in C^\perp}$?

I've come across this exercise plenty of times and I still don't understand how to do it. (Here it is from N.C. Ex.10.25) Let $C$ be a linear code (Lets suppose its a binary code, i.e. a $k$-...
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Do any two distinct pure states form a basis?

$\newcommand{\bra}[1]{\left<#1\right|}\newcommand{\ket}[1]{\left|#1\right>}\newcommand{\bk}[2]{\left<#1\middle|#2\right>}\newcommand{\bke}[3]{\left<#1\middle|#2\middle|#3\right>}$ In ...
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What happens if $|\psi\rangle$ = $|0\rangle$ or $|\psi\rangle$ = $|1\rangle$ is passed as an input to two Hadamard gates in sequence?

I'm a computer science student and soon I will have a math exam. I'm really struggling with this preparation question. Also, includes the following: How does this demonstrate that we need the “ket” ...
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1answer
62 views

Why don't I get what I expect when measuring with respect to a different basis?

$\newcommand{\bra}[1]{\left<#1\right|}\newcommand{\ket}[1]{\left|#1\right>}\newcommand{\bk}[2]{\left<#1\middle|#2\right>}\newcommand{\bke}[3]{\left<#1\middle|#2\middle|#3\right>}$ If ...
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156 views

Nielsen and Chuang ex 2.73

I've been trying to solve exercise 2.73 (p.g 105), and I'm not sure if i'v been overthinking it and the answer is as simple as i've described below or if I am missing something, or i'm just wrong! Ex ...
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1answer
81 views

What types of quantum systems use infinite values?

Background I am curious to learn more about any work that has been done regarding quantum systems that deal with infinite values. I am primarily interested in photonic quantum computing; however I am ...
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1answer
106 views

How is the ground state of a Hamiltonian defined?

I'm studying VQE, but there is something I don't get. We know (I think) that for a given Hamiltonian the minimum eigenvalue is associated with the ground state. But if we take the Hamiltonian to be ...
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2answers
54 views

What is a separable decomposition for the Werner state?

Consider the two-qubit Werner state, defined as $$\rho_z = z |\Psi_-\rangle\!\langle \Psi_-| + \frac{1-z}{4}I, \quad |\Psi_-\rangle\equiv\frac{1}{\sqrt2}(|00\rangle-|11\rangle),$$ for $z\ge0$. Using ...
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1answer
108 views

Represent a pure state in terms of 2 antipodal points on the Bloch sphere

I recently had an assignment where the question is based on the assumption that we can write any pure state qubit $|\phi \rangle$ as: $$|\phi \rangle = \gamma |\psi\rangle + \delta |\psi^\perp ...
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1answer
81 views

Eigenvalue and eigenvector in Qiskit

I want to calculate eigenvectors and eigenvalues for real symmetric matrix or Hermitian matrix. Can I use this: https://qiskit.org/documentation/api/qiskit.aqua.components.eigs.Eigenvalues.html
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Is kronecker product identifiable?

I have a unitary matrix $U$ and a quantum state $\vert \Psi \rangle$ such that $$ U \vert \Psi \rangle = e^{i \theta} \vert \Psi \rangle.$$ I also know that my unitary matrix and my quantum state can ...
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1answer
51 views

CPTP, Kraus representation and classical registers

What is the best mathematical representation of a quantum system that has some classical registers and some quantum registers? I'm asking because I'm considering any "physical" process $\pi()$ that ...
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Changing qubits coefficients to trigonometric functions in Grover Algorithm

In this paper, in Appendix B.1 (Grover's Search Algorithm and Grover Operator G), it does a change of coefficients, such as what is done for the Bloch Sphere, but for a many qubits system using only ...
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1answer
93 views

Understanding the outer products in density matrices

I don't understand a simple property of the outer product when doing density matrices. I am studying nielsen and chuang's book. At equation 2.197 they do show the density matrix of the state of ...
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1answer
31 views

Getting dot product from two wavefunctions

I'm looking at some examples, but I cannot get the expected result when it comes down to making the measurement on the following state where we measure the first qubit which is the ancilla state. ...
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1answer
80 views

Magnitudes and phases of coefficients of a qubit [duplicate]

Quantum mechanics is based on the idea of waves, and waves have both a magnitude and a phase? $$|\psi\rangle = i\alpha|0\rangle + \beta|1\rangle.$$ Does $\alpha$ and $\beta$ represent magnitude and $i$...
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Applying density matrix based criterion to verify separability

In order to figure out if a given pure 2-qubit state is entangled or separable, I am trying to compute: the density matrix, then the reduced density matrix by tracing out with respect to one of the ...
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Affine Map of the Bloch sphere

I am referring to Equation (8.89) to (8.92) in Chapter 8 of "Quantum Computing and Information 10th Anniversary Edition" by Nielsen and Chuang. This section deals with the geometric picture of single ...
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1answer
206 views

In Dirac notation, why do we have $\langle cf|g\rangle = c^*\langle f\vert g\rangle$?

A Hilbert Space has this property $$\langle cf,g\rangle=c\langle f,g\rangle$$ where $f$ and $g$ are the vectors in the Hilbert Space and $c$ is a complex number. In Dirac Notation, $$\langle cf|g\...
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Is Connes' Embedding Problem akin the word problem for finitely presented groups?

The complexity class $\mathrm{MIP^*}$ includes the set of languages that can be efficiently verified by a classical, polynomially-bounded verifier, engaging with two quantum provers that can share (...
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72 views

Where will I find necessary math to understand HHL algorithm?

How can we show that HHL algorithm achieves exponential speedup?
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1answer
104 views

Problem 2.2 in Nielsen & Chuang - Properties of the Schmidt number

This question has been asked here: "Problem 2.2 in Nielsen & Chuang - Properties of the Schmidt number", but no answer has been provided there yet, thus I move it here. The problem is stated ...

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