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Questions tagged [nielsen-and-chuang]

For questions about exercises or passages from the popular quantum computing textbook *Quantum Computation and Quantum Information* by Michael Nielsen and Isaac Chuang.

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Why is a post-measurement state a valid quantum state?

Postulate 3 of the postulates of quantum mechanics in Nielsen & Chuang states that Quantum measurements are described by a collection ${M_m}$ of measurement operators... and the state of the ...
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Quantum Error Correction Difficulties: "Measurements destroy quantum information" Intuition

Context: In section 10.1.1, Nielsen and Chuang describe the difficulties QEC faces compared to classical error correction. Particularly that Measurements destroy quantum information. Shor states in ...
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On the use of $\log(P\otimes Q)= \log P\otimes I+I\otimes\log Q$ for relations between entropic quantities. What if $P,Q$ are only semidefinite?

Many properties of entropic quantities are shown by resorting to related properties of the relative entropy of suitable quantities. For instance, subadditivity of entropy may follow from non ...
atlantropa's user avatar
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Exercise 11.7 in Nielsen & Chuang and basic properties of Shannon entropy

I apologize in advance if this question is trivial, I'm aware I'm a total beginner in this field. This is the exercise I would like to solve: As to the first point, what I get is that one should ...
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Question about fault-tolerant measurement in Nielsen&Chuang page 490

The fault-tolerant procedures for state preparation and logical operation consider the procedure successful if only a one-qubit error occurs in each encoded block of the output. So, I thought that the ...
이호준's user avatar
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Prove that $\text{Tr}(M|ψ\rangle\langleϕ|)=\langleϕ|M|ψ\rangle$

Question: I am studying alone, and I found p.76 of the book quantum computation and quantum information of nielsen &c huang that: $$\text{Tr}(M |\psi\rangle \langle\psi)=\langle\psi| M |\psi\...
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How to construct a quantum circuit for quantum Fourier transform in a prime dimensional Hilbert space?

This problem is given as a problem in Nielsen and Chuang. Consider a Hilbert space of dimension $p$ where $p$ is a prime number. Quantum Fourier transform (QFT) in this space is defined as $$ |j\...
Abu Saleh Musa's user avatar
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208 views

Trace Distance in Bloch sphere, what is the vector of Pauli matrices?

While reading Chapter 9.2.1 Trace distance in "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information," I encountered a question. What is the vector of Pauli matrices referring to? $$ \vec{\sigma} = (\...
Wang Sheffield's user avatar
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How to find projection operators for spectral decomposition

I am a little bit confused about the spectral decomposition for the observable $Z_{1}Z_{2}$ in Section $10.1$ of Nielsen and Chunag's "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information". The idea ...
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Solution Nielsen and Chuang exercize 10.71

Exercise 10.71: Verify that when $M = e^{−iπ/4}SX$ the procedure we have described gives a fault-tolerant method for measuring $M$. The book describes a procedure to perform the measurement. Instead ...
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Which stabilizer generators of a CSS code follow from which parity check matrices?

Do I have the right correspondence below between $X$-type ($Z$-type) stabilizer generators and the rows of the parity check matrices of $C_2^\perp$ ($C_1$)? I ask because it seems Nielsen and Chuang ...
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Why $\sqrt{\rho} = P \sqrt{\rho}$ in the proof of quantum error correction conditions in Nielsen & Chuang?

I have trouble understanding this proof in Nielsen & Chuang, specifically the identity in $(10.20)$, which reads $$ U_k^\dagger P_k F_l \sqrt{\rho} = U_k^\dagger P_k^\dagger P_k^\dagger F_l P \...
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Question about Nielson & Chuang Problem 9.2

I am working on the following problem from the book "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information" by Nielsen and Chuang. Problem 9.2: Let $\mathcal{E}$ be a trace-preserving quantum ...
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Quantum Process Tomography for 2 qubits

I need clarification on a few aspects related to Box 8.5 and Exercise 8.34 from the book Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Nielsen & Chuang . While attempting Exercise 8.34, I ...
Sachindra Kumar's user avatar
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2 answers
98 views

What we get when measure $|0\rangle$ under computational basis?

It is said if we have been given the state $|0\rangle$, the measurement will yield $0$ with probability $1$ in Nielsen's book. So here, the measurement will yield $0$ refers to we will get state $|0\...
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Explanation of the 2.60 equation page 76 in the Nielsen and Chuang [duplicate]

In the Nielsen and Chuang book page 76, equation 2.60 says that we can rewrite the trace $$Tr(A \left|\psi\right>\left<\psi\right|)$$ as follow : $$Tr(A \left|\psi\right>\left<\psi\right|) ...
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Unital channel which is not mixed unitary

How to prove that for a multi-qubit system a unital channel is not necessarily mixed unitary? This is Problem 8.3 in Nielsen and Chuang. Here's a snippet of the text: Shall I need to take two ...
Sudhir Kumar's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
425 views

Proof of the 4.11 exercise in the Nielsen & Chuang book

In question 4.11 in Nielsen and Chuang's book, it states that there is a formula to describe any unitary matrix $U$ with two vectors $\vec{n}$ and $\vec{m}$ in the following way: $$U=\exp(i \alpha) ...
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Exercise 4.16 in the Nielsen & Chuang book

In the 4.16 exercice in the Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Michael A. Nielsen & Isaac L. Chuang), I don't understand why the correct answer is not this matrix : $$ \left[ {\begin{...
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Why is the matrix obtained from the coefficients of orthogonal states unitary?

I'm having troubles in understanding a statement in Box 2.7 at page 113 in the Nielsen & Chuang. Firstly, it assumed to be working with a two-qubits quantum system in state $|\psi\rangle = \frac{|...
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Can a density operator be written equivalently as $\rho=\sum_i p_i|\psi_i〉\!\langle\psi_i|$ and $\rho=\sum_i\lambda_i|\psi_i\rangle\!\langle\psi_i|$?

My doubt arises from page 99, 101 of the book Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Michael A.Nielson and Issac L.Chung. Let {${p_{i}, | \psi_{i} \rangle }$} be an ensemble of pure states. ...
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How to derive the expression for the probability in quantum phase estimation? ((5.27) Nielsen & Chuang)

I'm trying to understand the QPE algorithm that is presented in the Nielsen and Chuang textbook. More precisely, I do not understand Equation $(5.27)$. Context: In the following, let $b$ be a natural ...
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$T_1$ and $T_2$ time with amplitude damping

Exercise 8.30 of Nielson & Chuang's QCQI says Equation 7.144, which is mentioned in the text, is $$\begin{bmatrix} a & b\\ b^* & 1-a \end{bmatrix}\rightarrow\begin{bmatrix} (a-a_0)e^{-t/...
Jintao Yu's user avatar
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Show that for pure states the description of the Bloch vector we have given coincides with that in section 1.2

$\newcommand\bra[1]{\left\langle#1\right|}\newcommand\ket[1]{\left|#1\right\rangle} $ I am having a little bit of difficulty with part (4) of Exercises 2.72 from Nielsen and Chuang's "Quantum ...
am567's user avatar
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Why are rotations represented by exponentials of Pauli matrices?

I'm self-studying Quantum Computation from Nielsen and Chuang's book. In section 4.2 they discuss that for any unit vector $\hat n$, the rotation operator $R_{\hat n}(\theta) = \exp(-i\theta\hat n \...
slimmerikko's user avatar
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Show that any measurement where the measurement operators and the POVM elements coincide is a projective measurement

The following question is exercise 2.62 from Nielsen and Chuang's "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information" Show that any measurement where the measurement operators and the POVM ...
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Verify that if $A$ and $B$ are diagonal in the same orthonormal basis, then $[A,B]=0$

This is from Nielson and Chuang's textbook "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information". They state the Simultaneous Diagonalisation Theorem: Suppose $A$ and $B$ are Hermitian operators. ...
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Proof of the Lieb's theorem

Lemma A6.2: Let $R1 , R2 , S1 , S2 , T1, T2$ be positive operators such that $0 = [R1, R2 ] = [S1, S 2 ] = [T1, T2 ]$, and $$ R1 ≥ S1 + T1\\ R2 ≥ S2 + T2 $$ Then for all $0 ≤ t ≤ 1$, $$ R_1^t R_2^{1−t}...
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Why can Shor code fix arbitrary errors?

This is taken from Page 434 of Nielsen and Chuang: To simplify the analysis, suppose noise of an arbitrary type is occurring on the first qubit only; we’ll come back to what happens when noise is ...
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Verification for calculation on Shor's code

Here I have tried to determine the end result for the qubit states, when we apply an arbitrary gate on the first qubit in the 9 qubit code. I have followed this diagram: U's operation on a qubit can ...
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In quantum error correction, what does an "arbitrary error that yields an un-normalized state" mean?

This is from page 434 of Nielsen and Chuang: . Supposing the state of the encoded qubit is |ψ⟩ before the noise acts, then after the noise has acted the state is E(|ψ⟩⟨ψ|). To analyze the effects of ...
Alan Whitteaker's user avatar
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Non trace-preserving map in axiomatic approach to quantum operations

In Nielsen and Chuang's Quantum Computation and Quantum information there is an axiomatic definition of the quantum operation (as one of the 3 approaches to quantum operations). A quantum operation is ...
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Clarification regarding application of distributive property in "quantum teleportation" example

For context, this is from Page 27 of Nielsen, M. A., & Chuang, I. L. (2010). Quantum Computation and Quantum Information: 10th Anniversary Edition. Cambridge University Press: She then sends the ...
Alan Whitteaker's user avatar
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Is it true that $|r_i-s_i| \le 1/2$ for all $i$, where $r_i$ and $s_i$ are the eigenvalues of density matrices $\rho$ and $\sigma$?

In Nielsen and Chuang's Box 11.2: Continuity of the entropy, in the process of proving the Fannes' inequality, it says: A moment’s thought shows that $\left|r_i − s_i\right| \le 1/2$ for all i, The ...
Guangliang's user avatar
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How to show that the three-qubit repetition code only corrects up to 1-bit flip errors?

From Nielsen and Chuang, the error correction criteria is $$P E_i^{\dagger} E_j P=\alpha_{i j} P$$ $P$ is the projector onto the correct codespace, $E_{j}$ are error operations and $\alpha_{i j} $ is ...
Aubrey Sharansky's user avatar
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179 views

How are quantum error-correction conditions in Nielsen and Chuang implemented in practice?

Quantum error-correction conditions in Nielsen and Chuang, 10th-anniversary edition (Theorem 10.1) state that the error operation $\mathcal{E}$ with operation elements $\{E_i\}$ is correctable if and ...
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Derive the Concavity of Quantum Conditional Entropy from Strong subadditivity

In Exercise 11.25, Page 522, Entropy and information, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Nielsen and Chuang, it is required to show that the concavity of the conditional entropy may be ...
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Nielsen Chang exercise 4.10

I' m trying to figure out how to decompose unitary operator U using only Rx and Ry rotations. I understand that I must use result of exercise 4.8 ($ U = e^{i\alpha}R_n(\theta)$). But I don't ...
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Derivations of Equations (12.205 - 12.207) in Nielsen Chuang

While proving the security of the BB84 protocol, Nielsen and Chuang demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the CSS protocol to the secure BB84 protocol without requiring Alice to reveal the value ...
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Do the parity matrices of $\text{CSS}(C_1, C_2)$ and $\text{CSS}_{u,v}(C_1, C_2)$ need to be same and the Number of Distinct Equivalent Descriptions?

This question relates to Exercise 10.27 of Nielsen & Chuang, which says: Show that the codes defined by $$| x + C_2 \rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{C_2}} \sum\limits_{y \in C_2} (-1)^{u \cdot y} | x+y+v ...
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How Does the Transformation $|x \rangle | 0 \rangle \rightarrow | x \rangle | Hx \rangle $ Avoid Violating the No-Cloning Theorem?

This question relates to Nielsen & Chuang, Exercise 10.26, which says Suppose $H$ is a parity check matrix. Explain how to compute the transformation $|x \rangle | 0 \rangle \rightarrow | x \...
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Derivation of Equation 10.69 in Nielsen Chuang

In the proof of correctness of CSS codes in Nielsen and Chuang, we see that equation $(10.68)$: $$ \frac{1}{\sqrt{|C_2|}} \sum\limits_{y \in C_2} (-1)^{(x+y)\cdot e_2} |x+y \rangle $$ can be ...
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What do we mean by family of CSS codes?

In proving the security of BB84 in Nielsen and Chuang (10th anniversary edition - Section 12.6.5), they argue that a codeword in $\text{CSS}(C_1, C_2)$ is represented by $$\frac{1}{\sqrt{|C_2|}} \sum\...
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Calculation of $\frac{d}{dt} I_t(A,X)$ in proving the convexity of the relative entropy via Lieb's theorem

In Page 520, Entropy and information, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Nielsen and Chuang, it is given that The relative entropy $S(ρ||σ)$ is jointly convex in its arguments, where $S(ρ|...
Sooraj S's user avatar
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How to extract probabilities from Kraus representation?

Consider a quantum operation described by Kraus operators $K_1, ..., K_n$. As I understand the effect of this operation on a density matrix $\rho$ can be described as $ \mathcal{E}(\rho)= \sum_{i}p(i)\...
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The matrix norm $\|A\|=\max_{\langle u|u\rangle=1}|\langle u|A|u\rangle|$ in the proof of Lieb's theorem

In Exercise A6.4, Appendix 6: Proof of Lieb’s theorem, Page 645, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Nielsen and Chuang, A matrix norm of $A$ is defined as $$\|A\|=\max_{\langle u|u\rangle=...
Sooraj S's user avatar
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How to correct error during the syndrome measurement or recovery process?

Here's the figure 10.21 from Nielsen's Quantum Computation and Quantum Information to explain the fault-tolerant quantum computing, where the circuit in the figure corrects the error that happens in ...
SUSY's user avatar
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Prove the equality conditions in the triangle inequality $S(A,B)\ge |S(A)-S(B)|$ for the von Neumann entropy

The triangle inequality or Araki-Lieb inequality of the von Neumann entropy is $$ S(A,B)\ge|S(A)-S(B)| $$ this is proven by introducing a system $R$ which purifies systems $A$ and $B$. Applying ...
Sooraj S's user avatar
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How to prove that ${\rm tr}(A|\psi\rangle\langle\psi|)=\langle\psi| A|\psi\rangle$?

How can one prove that $tr(A\mid\psi\rangle\langle\psi\mid)=\langle\psi\mid A\mid\psi\rangle$? In Nielsen/Chuang they mention this is due to Gram-Schmidt decomposition but I can’t understand how.
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What is the meaning of $\langle e_k|U|e_0\rangle$ when $U$ acts on a larger Hilbert space than that in which $|e_0\rangle$ and $|e_k\rangle$ live?

In Nielsen and Chuang, 10th Anniversary Edition, there is a definition of the operator sum representation of a quantum operation: $\mathcal{E}(\rho)=\sum_{k}\langle e_k|U[\rho\otimes|e_0\rangle\langle ...
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