Questions tagged [nielsen-and-chuang]

For questions about exercises or passages from the popular quantum computing textbook *Quantum Computation and Quantum Information* by Michael Nielsen and Isaac Chuang.

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Write the difference of 2 density operators in terms of a spectral decomposition

An exercise question (9.7) from Quantum computation and Quantum Information by Michael E. Nielson and Isaac L. Chuang says that I can write the difference of any 2 arbitrary density operators $\rho,\...
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Equivalent statement of the unitary freedom of Kraus operator?

There is a well-known form of the unitary freedom of Kraus operators, which can be found in Nielsen's book, stating that two sets of Kraus operators describe the same physical process of the system(...
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How to start reading quantum computing papers?

What's the best way to get to a state where you can read quantum computing papers? I find them too dense and full of notation to approach. I am currently working my way through Nielsen and Chuang's ...
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In what sense are Pauli matrices measurement operators?

Neilson and Chuang's textbook shows a nice example of measuring in the $Z$ basis on page 89 in section 2.2.5. The Hermitians for measuring in the $Z$ basis, $|0\rangle\langle 0|$ and $|1\rangle\langle ...
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How can the entropy of quantum states increase after projective measurements?

I'm reading Nielsen and chuang 11.3.3 Measurements and Entropy. It says after measurement, one's entropy increases. How is this possible? Shouldn't measurement decrease one's uncertainty?
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Exercise 4.41 in N&C book QCQI: how can i implement $R_z(\theta)$ using the circuit shown and $Z$?

I'm studying Nielsen and Chuang's book. I cannot solve one of the questions in the exercise 4.41. The question is the last one that is Explain how repeated use of this circuit and Z gates may be used ...
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Understanding the definition of entropy in the joint entropy theorem derivation

From section 11.3.2 of Nielsen & Chuang: (4) let $\lambda_i^j$ and $\left|e_i^j\right>$ be the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of $\rho_i$. Observe that $p_i\lambda_i^j$ and $\left|...
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How to visualize Hadamard gate as $X$-$Z$-$X$ decomposition?

In the book Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Nielsen and Chuang, chapter 4, exercise 4.4 (pg. 175), the author has asked to express Hadamard gate as product of $R_x$, $R_z$ rotations and ...
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How can I prove inequality from 4.66 to 4.67 in Nielson and Chuang's book?

I am reading chapter 4 of Nielson and Chuang's QCQI book. I cannot prove the inequality from (4.66) to (4.67) in page 195. That inequality is the following: $$ |\langle\psi|U^\dagger M|\Delta\rangle|+|...
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Regrouping the terms in expression 1.31 in Quantum Computing and Quantum Information, Nielsen and Chuang

I'm trying to reproduce the passage from expression 1.31 to 1.32 in the book Quantum Computing and Quantum Information, by Michael Nielsen and Isaac Chuang. Expression 1.31 is: $$|\psi_2\rangle = \...
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In the amplitude amplification algorithm in Nielsen and Chuang's book, why is the error probability $M/N$?

I was able to follow til the yellow-highlighted sentences, which seems to be important to understand. Why M/N is the probability of error? If so 1 - M/N would be the probability of success?
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Construction of arbitrary Normalizer Gates using H, S and CNOT Gates

This question is in reference to Exercise 10.40 of Nielsen and Chuang's textbook, which is an attempt to prove the theorem that any $n$ qubit Normalizer gate can be built out of $H$, $S$, and $CNOT$ ...
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Measurement interpretation - do individual operators get applied?

The description of measurement operators in Nielsen and Chuang is as follows: Quantum measurements are described by a collection $\{M_m\}$ of measurement operators. These are operators acting on the ...
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How to prove generalized Uhlmann's theorem?

I think the Uhlmann theorem should be in general of this form: Let $\rho$ and $\sigma$ be density operators acting on $A$, with Schmidt degrees at most $r$, and let $B$ be another Hilbert space with ...
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53 views

Mathematics Behind Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm

I am currently learning from Nielsen and Chuang and I am currently learning about Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. However, I am stumped with the mathematics of the algorithm at the following section: I ...
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1answer
49 views

Quantum parallelism and Deutsch's algorithm - what is $U_f$ really? [closed]

I'm trying to understand quantum parallelism ideas leading the Deutsch's algorithm. The circuit in question is I understand that we end up with $$|\psi_3 \rangle = \pm | f(0) \oplus f(1) \rangle \...
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1answer
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Umambiguous discrimination using POVM with highest discriminate probability

I was studying Nielsen&Chuang's textbook (about page 92), and come up with a question that I cannot solve it. Given one of the two state $|\psi_1\rangle=|0\rangle$ and $|\psi_2\rangle=\frac{1}{\...
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What does measurement mean in quantum error correction(syndrome diagnosis)?

In the case of the simple three-qubit repetition code, the encoding consists of the mappings $|0\rangle \rightarrow\left|0_{\mathrm{L}}\right\rangle \equiv|000\rangle$ and $|1\rangle \rightarrow\left|...
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Knill-Laflamme condition derivation in Nielsen&Chuang: issue to understand a part of the proof

I have some trouble to understand the proof in Nielsen&Chuang about Knill-Laflamme conditions. The conditions: Let $C$ be a quantum code and $P$ the projector onto $C$. Suppose $\mathcal{E}$ is a ...
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Show when $a_k$ and $b_k$ are correlated when measuring in different bases, in the BB84 protocol

I'm trying to answer the following question about the BB84 protocol from Nielsen and Chuang's Introduction to Quantum Information. As I understand it, the string $b$ is determining whether we are ...
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In quantum process tomography, how does $\chi$ characterize a quantum process?

I'm working through Nielsen and Chuang and I'm pretty confused by the discussion of quantum process tomography. I'm trying to work through an example of 1-qubit state tomography given by N&C (box ...
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Can we write the density operator as a sum of mixed states?

In every resource I find (like Nielsen and Chuang or online courses), the density operator is defined as follows: we consider a sequence of pure states $\left|\psi_i\right\rangle$ with associated ...
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Exercise 4.6 in Quantum Computing and Quantum Information Nielsen and Chuang

Question 4.6: One reason why the $R_\hat{n}(θ)$ operators are referred to as rotation operators is the following fact, which you are to prove. Suppose a single qubit has a state represented by the ...
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Question about the phase kickback in the phase estimation algorithm

I have an issue with the quantum phase estimation algorithm as explained Nielsen and Chuang. There was a question very similar to mine asked about this 2 years ago, but my question is different... ...
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Question regarding bloch vector solutions for master equation on page 388 of N&C

On page 388 of N&C, you are asked to find the solution to a differential equation for a two-level atom coupled to a vacuum. However, I have no experience with differential equations, so I am ...
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Deutsch-Jozsa - Why $|0^n\rangle$ instead of $|1^n\rangle$?

I'm working through the Nielsen and Chuang book and am trying to understand the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. I think I understand it as it's presented, however I'm curious what would happen if we used $|1^...
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Quantum indistinguishability using density operators

There is something that bugs me concerning the use of density matrices. For instance, to argue that quantum teleportation does not spread an information faster than light, Nielsen and Chuang state the ...
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How would I theorise a quantum query algorithm in O(1)?

I am currently attempting to solve a problem from Nielsen-Chuang, and I can't seem to figure out how I would do this; I'm trying to implement Grover's algorithm to solve the problem of differentiating ...
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On what basis can we write a positive operator as $A=\sum_k\lambda_k|k\rangle\langle k|$?

In Nielsen & Chuang's book equation 2.172 says $$A=\sum_{i}|\widetilde{\psi_i}\rangle \langle \widetilde{\psi_i}| = \sum_j |\widetilde{\phi_j}\rangle \langle \widetilde{\phi_j}|.$$ Then it makes ...
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Why is the subscript like this in the equation $\sum_i |\psi_i\rangle \langle\psi_i| = \sum_{ijk} u_{ij} u_{ik}^{*}|\phi_j\rangle \langle\phi_k|$?

In Nielsen's book when proving "Unitary freedom in the ensemble for density matrices"(Theorem 2.6): $$\text{Suppose }|\widetilde{\psi_i}\rangle = \sum\limits_{j}u_{ij} |\widetilde{\phi_j}\...
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How does a general rotation $R_\hat{n}(\theta)$ related to $U_3$ gate?

From eqn. $(4.8)$ in Nielsen and Chuang, a general rotation by $\theta$ about the $\hat n$ axis is given by $$ R_\hat{n}(\theta)\equiv \exp(-i\theta\hat n\cdot\vec\sigma/2) = \cos(\theta/2)I-i\sin(\...
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Why does $\sum_n \langle n|M_m\rho M_m^\dagger|n\rangle$ simplify to $\langle \psi|M_m^\dagger M_m|\psi\rangle$?

I was trying to derive the formula for $p(m)$ in exercise 8.2 on page 357 in Nielsen & Chuang. But I am wondering what rule I can apply to simplify this $$\mathrm{tr}(\mathcal{E}_m(\rho) )= \...
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How would I compute a density matrix of a complex qubit mixed state?

I am currently reading Nielsen & Chuang, and one of the questions asks to calculate a density matrix with the following mixed state, $$ \frac{1}{9}\begin{bmatrix} 5 & 1 & −i \\ 1 & 2 &...
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How would I compute a density matrix of a 2 qubit mixed state?

I am currently reading Nielsen & Chuang, and one of the questions asks to calculate a density matrix with the following mixed states, how would I do this? $$ |00> \;with \;probability \; 2/4 \\ ...
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Derivation of Equation $8.7$ in Nielsen Chuang [duplicate]

Equation \eqref{eq:sp1} represents the reduced state of the system after tracing over environment.(Page number 358) $$\mathcal{E}(\rho) = \mathrm{tr}_{env}(\lbrack U(\rho \otimes \rho_{env} )U^{\...
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In Bell's inequalities, what is the meaning of assuming that the physical properties $P_Q,P_R,P_S,P_T$ have definite values?

Two assumptions behind Bell inequalities (Page 117 Nielsen Chuang) (1) The assumption that the physical properties $P_{Q}$, $P_{R}$, $P_{S}$, $P_{T}$ have definite values $Q$,$R$, $S$, $T$ which exist ...
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How do we find the stabilizer generators for the three-qubit bit-flip code spanned by $|000\rangle$ and $|111\rangle$?

In Nielsen & Chuang's book "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information" section 10.5.6, page 467 there is the following statement Consider the familiar three-qubit bit-flip code ...
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What's the 'physical consistency' in the partial trace scenario?

I'm reading 'Why the partial trace' section on page 107 in Nielsen and Chuang textbook. Here's part of their explanations that I don't quite understand: Physical consistency requires that any ...
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What are Sideband Pulses

I see sideband pulses used all over the place when looking up implementation techniques especially in Trapped Ion QC. Is there a layman's explanation of what they actually are? I understand what they ...
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What's the difference between $p(i|m)$ and $p(m|i)$ in measurement?

Suppose we perform a measurement described by measurement operators $M_m$. If the initial state is $|{\psi_i}\rangle$, then the probability of getting result $m$ is $$ \begin{align} p(m|i)=\| M_m|\...
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What does $M_m |\psi_i\rangle$ mean in the equation $p(m|i)=\langle\psi_i|M_m^\dagger M_m|\psi_i\rangle$?

I have trouble understanding two equations in the Nielsen & Chuang textbook. Suppose we perform a measurement described by the operator $M_m$. If the initial state is $|\psi_i\rangle$, then the ...
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Output of Quantum Phase Estimation Algorithm

In section 5.2.1 of Nielsen Chuang, Performance and Requirements, there is an idea, that what happens if we can't prepare eigen state $|u\rangle$ and instead have a state $|\psi\rangle$ which is ...
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Application of QFT to Order-finding

In the Nielsen & Chuang book, section 5.3.1 page 226, there is a statement which goes like this:- (statement-1) The quantum algorithm for order-finding is just the phase estimation algorithm ...
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EPR Experiment: What does it mean for Alice to measure $\vec{v} \cdot \vec{\sigma}$ on her qubit?

I am trying to understand Box 2.7 on page 113 of Quantum Computation and Quantum Information book by Nielsen and Chuang. They start out with following wave function: \begin{equation} \psi = \frac{|01\...
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Complexity of controlled operations in a two-level unitary operation

In Neilsen and Chuang, chapter 4.5.2 (~p.193), why did the authors come to the conclusion that complexity of operations $C^n(X)$ and $C^n(\tilde{U})$ is $O(n)$? Did they assume using work qubits? If ...
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Standard form Shor's code

I'm trying to solve exercise 10.57 in Nielsen-Chuang, where you have to obtain the standard form check matrix of Shor's code. I followed the procedure laid out in the earlier chapter but then realised ...
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How do get from $|0\rangle=\alpha|a\rangle+\beta|b\rangle$, $|1\rangle=\gamma|a\rangle+\delta|b\rangle$ to an expression for $|01\rangle-|10\rangle$?

My question is linked to the Nielsen Chuang book. Particularly equation 2.216 on basis change from $|0\rangle$, $|1\rangle$ to orthonormal $|a\rangle$ and $|b\rangle$. How do we get the equation from ...
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In Nielsen and Chuang, how can $\frac{1}{2(e-1)}$ result from $\frac12\int_{e-1}^{2^{t-1}-1}dl\frac{1}{l^2}$?

From Nielsen and Chuang's book: $\textit{Quantum computation and quantum information}$, how can (5.34) equal (5.33)? I.e. $$\dfrac{1}{2} \int_{e-1}^{2^{t-1}-1} dl \dfrac{1}{l^2} = \dfrac{1}{2(e-1)}.$$...
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In Uhlmann's theorem, should the polar decomposition be written as $A=|A|V$ or $A=V|A|$?

In the proof of Uhlmann's theorem, the book writes the polar decomposition: $A = |A|V$, with $|A| = \sqrt{A^\dagger A}$. Shouldn't it be $V|A|$ instead? The former case is $A^\dagger A = V^\dagger|A||...
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CSS Code and Fault-tolerant Problem in Nielsen and Isaac Chuang‘s book

Could someone help me with $Problem-10.52$ in Nielsen and Isaac Chuang‘s book? The screenshot is shown below. I have no idea about that. Hope someone can give me some suggestions. By the way, if I ...