Questions tagged [entropy]

For questions about the various kinds of entropies --- as defined in the context of quantum information theory and quantum statistical mechanics.

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Positive conditional quantum entropy for entangled state

The quantum conditional entropy $S(A|B)\equiv S(AB)-S(A)$, where $S(AB)=S(\rho_{\rm AB})$ and $S(B)=S(\rho_{\rm B})$ is known to be non-negative for separable states. For entangled states, it is known ...
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41 views

Prove that for a general tri-partite state $\rho_{ABE}$, $H(AB) = H(E)$

How do I prove that for a general tri-partite state $\rho_{ABE}$, the following holds: $$ H(\rho_{AB}) = H(\rho_{E}), H(\rho_{AE}) = H(\rho_{B}), $$ where, $H$ is the Von Neumann entropy. Would ...
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51 views

Does the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence appear in any quantum algorithms or texts on quantum computing?

The generalization of probability distributions on density matrices allows to define quantum Jensen–Shannon divergence (QJSD), which uses von Neumann entropy. Does QJSD appear in any quantum ...
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Quantum analogues of information theoretic measures: are log probabilities replaced with the density matrix?

Below is a question and an answer. How does quantum information relate to, diverge from or reduce to Shannon information, which used log probabilities? What people are more often interested in are ...
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1answer
57 views

Relating quantum max-relative entropy to classical maximum entropy

The quantum max-relative entropy between two states is defined as $$D_{\max }(\rho \| \sigma):=\log \min \{\lambda: \rho \leq \lambda \sigma\},$$ where $\rho\leq \sigma$ should be read as $\sigma - \...
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48 views

Is “classical information” the same as “Shannon information”?

does Shannon meet Feynman? Bits underlie classical information measurements in information theory, while qubits underlie quantum information measurements in, what I can only assume to be called, ...
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70 views

von Neumann entropy in a limiting case

I am stuck with a question from the book Quantum theory by Asher Peres. Excercise (9.11): Three different preparation procedures of a spin 1/2 particle are represented by the vectors $\begin{pmatrix} ...
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1answer
28 views

What is the relationship between these two definitions for the max-entropy?

On Wikipedia, the max-entropy for classical systems is defined as $$H_{0}(A)_{\rho}=\log \operatorname{rank}\left(\rho_{A}\right)$$ The term max-entropy in quantum information is reserved for the ...
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88 views

Quantum relative entropy with respect to a pure state

I want to evalualte the quantum relative entropy $S(\rho|| \sigma)=-{\rm tr}(\rho {\rm log}(\sigma))-S(\rho)$, where $\sigma=|\Psi\rangle\langle\Psi|$ is a density matrix corresponding to a pure state ...
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29 views

Relative entropy inequality for many copies of a channel

Suppose we have two quantum channels $\mathcal{E}_{A\rightarrow B}, \mathcal{F}_{A\rightarrow B}$ that satisfy $$D(\mathcal{E}(\rho_A)\|\mathcal{E}(\sigma_A))\geq D(\mathcal{F}(\rho_A)\|\mathcal{F}(\...
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173 views

Conditional Time Evolution increases entropy?

Question Does the below calculation conclusively show the idea of conditional time evolution (if state measured is $x$ I do $y$ else I do $z$ ) increases the Von Neumann entropy? Has this already ...
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53 views

Non-lockability of quantum max-entropy

Lockability and non-lockability are explained in this paper. A real valued function of a quantum state is called non-lockable if its value does not change by too much after discarding a subsystem. The ...
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34 views

Semi-definite program for conditional smooth max-entropy

I am aware of a SDP formulation for smooth min-entropy: question link. That program for smooth min-entropy was found in this book by Tomachiel: page 91. However, I am yet to come across a semi-...
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161 views

Prove that Shannon and von Neumann entropies satisfy $H(P)\ge S(\rho)$ with $P$ diagonal of $\rho$

Suppose there is some $n$-qubit state $\rho$. It is well known fact that, given some orthonormal basis $U = \{|u_i\rangle\}$, if $p_i = \langle u_i| \rho |u_i \rangle$ (that is, measuring $\rho$ with $...
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50 views

How can one estimate the von Neumann entropy of an unknown quantum state?

Given many copies of some unknown quantum state $\rho$, I would like to compute its von Neumann entropy $S(\rho)$. What algorithm could be used for this that minimizes the number of copies required? ...
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59 views

How is $S(\rho)=H(p_{i})+\sum_{i}p_{i}S(\rho_{i})\le \log(d)$ possible if $\rho_{i}$ are not pure states?

I know how this can be proved using the quantum relative entropy. However, even with this proof, and am still confused about how this emerges. Say I have a source that produces two states $\rho_1$ and ...
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1answer
56 views

Proof of quantum data processing inequality in N&C on pg 566

On page 566, it states that using $S(\rho^{'})-S(\rho,\varepsilon) \ge S(\rho)$ and combining this with $S(\rho) \ge S(\rho^{'})-S(\rho,\varepsilon))$, we get $S(\rho^{'})=S(\rho)-S(\rho,\varepsilon)$....
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145 views

How can the Holevo bound be used to show that $n$ qubits cannot transmit more than $n$ classical bits?

The inequality $\chi \le H(X)$ gives the upper bound on accessible information. This much is clear to me. However, what isn't clear is how this tells me I cannot transmit more than $n$ bits of ...
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67 views

How well defined is $\log(P)$ for $P$ projection?

Whenever we calculate entropy we make use, for example, $\log(P)$ for $P$ a projection defined for some arbitrary finite dimensional Hilbert space. But for projection operators this is not well-...
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72 views

Definition of quantum min-relative entropy

In John Watrous' lectures, he defines the quantum min-relative entropy as $$D_{\min}(\rho\|\sigma) = -\log(F(\rho, \sigma)^2),$$ where $F(\rho,\sigma) = tr(\sqrt{\rho\sigma})$. Here, I use this ...
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133 views

Energy cost of quantum computation

A quantum computer can be modeled as a single unitary transition of a (large) effective quantum state to another. In order to get errors under control, quantum error correction is assumed. A logical ...
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66 views

Under what situation is $\sum_{i} p_{i}S(\rho_i)$ > 0

Concerning the Von Neumann Entropy $S(\rho) = H(pi) + \sum_{i}p_{i}S(\rho_{i})$, under what circumstances does $\sum_{i}piS(\rho_{i})$ become greater than 0? I am aware it occurs when $\rho_{i}$ is ...
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76 views

What are the thermodynamic limits of Shor's algorithm

The asymptotic time complexity of Grover's algorithm is the square root of the time of a brute force algorithm. However, according to Perlner and Liu, the thermodynamic behavior (theoretical minimum ...
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110 views

Increasing the von Neumann entropy despite the measurement?

Background Assume we have a density matrix $\rho$ of a sub-ensemble. However, we have an imperfect measuring instrument. While it does perform a measurement, we do not know exactly when it performs ...
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29 views

Using entropy_mutual function in QuTiP

I am trying to calculate mutual entropies using QuTiP, but I am being unsuccessful so far. More specifically, I consider a 2^n x 2^n matrix representing the density operator of a n-qubit bipartite ...
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67 views

Schumacher compression - comparing with Shannon compression

Background Shannon's source coding theorem tells us the following. We shall consider a binary alphabet for simplicity. Suppose Alice has $n$ independent and identically distributed instances of a ...
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1answer
156 views

What is the Von Neumann entropy of $\rho = \sum_ip_i|i\rangle\langle i| \otimes \rho_i$?

Let $\overline{p}$ be a probability distribution on $\{1,....,d\}$. Then let $\rho = \sum_ip_i|i\rangle\langle i| \otimes \rho_i$. How should I take the Von-Neumann entropy of $\rho$? I know that ...
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68 views

Continuity bounds on $D_{\max}(\rho_{AB}\|\rho_A\otimes\rho_B)$

The max-relative entropy between two states is defined as $$D_{\max }(\rho \| \sigma):=\log \min \{\lambda: \rho \leq \lambda \sigma\},$$ where $\rho\leq \sigma$ should be read as $\sigma - \rho$ is ...
3
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1answer
82 views

Questions on the max-relative entropy $D_{\max}(\rho||\sigma)$

The max-relative entropy between two states is defined as $$D_{\max }(\rho \| \sigma):=\log \min \{\lambda: \rho \leq \lambda \sigma\},$$ where $\rho\leq \sigma$ should be read as $\sigma - \rho$ is ...
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32 views

What are good resources for newcomers on entropy measurements?

I am starting on quantum computing and I got to entropy measurements, but that has me stuck because there seems to be a lack of resources for newcomers on those concepts and their utility. Does anyone ...
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1answer
89 views

How to calculate the Von Neuman entropy on qiskit with the module quantum_info?

I am trying to wrap my head around he quantum_info module on qiskit, since most of the functions on qiskit.tools are going to be ...
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1answer
64 views

Conditional version of the triangle inequality for Von Neumann entropy

I'm trying to solve problem 11.3 in Nielsen Chuang: (3) Prove the conditional version of the triangle inequality: $$ S(A,B|C)\geq S(A|C)-S(B|C) $$ But the inequality seems incorrect. For example,...
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90 views

Forbidden/allowed outputs of a quantum channel

The coherent information of a channel $\mathcal{E}_{A'\rightarrow B}$ is defined as the maximum value obtained by the following function where the maximization is over all input states $$I_{\rm{coh}}(...
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1answer
80 views

Quantum state discrimination and lower bound for conditional von Neumann entropy

Consider two quantum states $\rho_A$ and $\sigma_A$, and define the classical-quantum state over a classical binary system $B$ and $A$, $$\omega_{AB}^\epsilon :=\epsilon \vert 0 \rangle \langle 0 \...
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Convexity of coherent information - erroneous argument!

Consider a state $\rho_{AB}$. Let it have purification $\psi_{A'AB}$. I am interested in the coherent information of this state which is given by $$I(A\rangle B)_\rho = S(B)_\rho - S(AB)_\rho$$ I ...
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74 views

Entanglement entropy's role in quantum information

I am just new to the concepts of entanglement entropy and how it is used to measure the entanglement in systems. I want to know the role of entanglement entropy in quantum information, in general.
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35 views

Entropy of a shared state as measured by the individual parties

Suppose I prepare a Bell state $|\beta_{00}\rangle$, and distribute the product state $|\beta_{00}\rangle_{12}|\beta_{00}\rangle_{34}|\beta_{00}\rangle_{56}$ without telling them which state I ...
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79 views

How to measure entanglement in an algorithm?

Entanglement in Algorithms Most algorithms in quantum computing find their strength in making use of entanglement. I am interested in evaluating the amount of entanglement generated within an ...
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1k views

Quantum Supremacy: Some questions on cross-entropy benchmarking

I was skimming through the Google quantum supremacy paper but got stuck on this section: For a given circuit, we collect the measured bit-strings $\{x_i\}$ and compute the linear XEB fidelity [24-26, ...
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177 views

How do I compute the Relative Entropy between pure and mixed states?

Let $$ \rho = \begin{bmatrix} .7738 & -.0556 \\ -.0556 & .0040 \end{bmatrix} , \sigma = \begin{bmatrix} .9454 & -.2273 \\ -.2273 & .0546 \end{bmatrix} \\$$ As you can ...
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33 views

How to prove the following bosonic entanglement expression?

Based on the article given by J. L. Ball, I. Fuentes-Schuller, and F. P. Schuller, Phys. Lett. A 359, 550 (2006) had used the following expression of von-Neumann entropy \begin{equation} S = - \...
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1answer
79 views

What is Landauer’s principle?

How does the act of erasing information increase the total entropy of the system? This goes by the name Landauer's principle. Some details are here. Can anyone shed more light on this?
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91 views

What property ensures that von Neumann entropy is conserved?

So I always had this idea in my mind that unitary evolution in quantum mechanics conserves information (or in other words von Neumann entropy) because unitary evolution preserves the trace. But this ...
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125 views

Degradable channels and their quantum capacity

Note: I'm reposting this question as it was deleted by the original author, so that we do not lose out on the existing answer there, by Prof. Watrous. Further answers are obviously welcome. I have ...
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1answer
89 views

Quantum channel cannot increase Holevo information of an ensemble

I need to prove the fact that a quantum channel (a superoperator) cannot increase the Holevo information of an ensemble $\epsilon = \{\rho_x, p_x\}$. Mathematically expressed I need to prove $$\begin{...
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1answer
79 views

Superoperator cannot increase relative entropy

Note: Cross-posted on Physics SE. So I have to show that a superoperator $\$$ cannot increase relative entropy using the monotonicity of relative entropy: $$S(\rho_A || \sigma_A) \leq S(\rho_{AB} || ...
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2answers
270 views

Can an isometry leave entropy invariant?

Consider two finite dimensional Hilbert spaces $A$ and $B$. If I have an isometry $V:A\rightarrow A\otimes B$, under what condition can I find a unitary $U:A\otimes B\to A\otimes B$ such that $$U\rho_{...
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188 views

Understanding classical vs. quantum channel capacities

The classical channel capacity ($C_{ea}$) and the quantum channel capacity ($Q$) as defined here (eqs. 1 and 2) are given by \begin{equation} C_{ea} = \text{sup}_{\rho} \Big[S(\rho) + S(\Phi_t \rho) -...
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872 views

Computing von Neumann entropy of pure state in density matrix

Let's say I have a pure state of the form: $$\psi = \sqrt{\frac{3}{9}} \lvert 0 \rangle + \sqrt{\frac{6}{9}} \lvert 1 \rangle$$ Then the density matrix representation would be: $$\rho = \psi \otimes \...
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1answer
110 views

What do entanglement cost and distillable entanglement have to do with measuring entanglement?

So far what I have learned is that von-Neumann entropy is a tool to measure or quantify information and therefore entanglement for a given pure state system. However, similar concepts emerge from the ...