Questions tagged [entropy]

For questions about the various kinds of entropies --- as defined in the context of quantum information theory and quantum statistical mechanics.

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Entropic uncertainty relations with measurements and memory [duplicate]

In entropic uncertainty relations involving measurements and memory, one has a quantum state $\rho_{AB}$. Alice holds register $A$ and performs one of two measurements denoted by observables $R$ and $...
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Does quantum mutual information encompass information only about quantum correlations, or does it encompass both classical and quantum correlations?

I am confused about what quantum mutual information gives us. Does it give all kinds of quantum correlations? Or does it give all kinds of quantum and classical correlations? If it consists of ...
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Is there a known deterministic counterexample for non-additivity of minimal output entropy?

Hastings has proved that the minimal output entropy is not additive: it may happen that $S_{\mathrm{min}}(\Phi_1 \otimes \Phi_2) < S_{\mathrm{min}}(\Phi_1)+S_{\mathrm{min}}(\Phi_2) $ for quantum ...
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Upper bound on entanglement entropy of a Product State for any possible partition of the Joint System

Let $|\psi\rangle$ be an $n$ qubit quantum state on a line with Von Neumann entanglement entropy at most $r$ with respect to any bipartition of the qubits (does not have to be a contiguous bipartition)...
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Is quantum mutual information an entanglement measure?

For a bipartite system, the quantum mutual information is defined via the Von Neumann entropy as follows: $$I(A:B)=S(A)+S(B)-S(AB).$$ It's always positive. Is it an entanglement measurement? Also how ...
reza's user avatar
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Why are all Rényi entropies equal for Clifford dynamics?

In this paper, by Adam Nahum et al., the authors trivially states that "For Clifford dynamics all Rényi entropies are equal ... " which is not trivial to me. Is there a paper or lecture ...
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States for Tight Maassen-Uffink Uncertainty Relation

I was reading this paper titled "Entropic Uncertainty Relations and their Applications". There,at equation (47) we have the Maassen-Uffink uncertainty relation which states that for a pair ...
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Quantum relative entropy between pre- and post-measurement states

The quantum relative entropy between the states $\rho$ and $\sigma$ is defined by $$D(\rho||\sigma)= \textrm{tr}\Big(\rho \big(\log\rho - \log \sigma \big) \Big)\,,$$ as long as the support of $\rho$ ...
quantum_theo's user avatar
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Is Klein's inequality due to Klein?

You may be familiar with "Klein's inequality"; one form of it is $$ -\operatorname{tr}(\rho \log \sigma) + \operatorname{tr}(\rho \log \rho) \ge 0, $$ stating that relative entropy is ...
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General structure of the state with $I(A:B|C)_{\rho}{=}2 \log_2 \{\min (d_A, d_B)\}$

The conditional quantum mutual information (CQMI) of a state $\rho^{ABC}$ respects the dimension bound $I(A:B|C)_{\rho}{\leq}2 \log_2 \{\min (d_A, d_B)\}$ (Mark Wilde's book, exercise 11.7.9). One ...
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Proof of the Lieb's theorem

Lemma A6.2: Let $R1 , R2 , S1 , S2 , T1, T2$ be positive operators such that $0 = [R1, R2 ] = [S1, S 2 ] = [T1, T2 ]$, and $$ R1 ≥ S1 + T1\\ R2 ≥ S2 + T2 $$ Then for all $0 ≤ t ≤ 1$, $$ R_1^t R_2^{1−t}...
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Is it true that $|r_i-s_i| \le 1/2$ for all $i$, where $r_i$ and $s_i$ are the eigenvalues of density matrices $\rho$ and $\sigma$?

In Nielsen and Chuang's Box 11.2: Continuity of the entropy, in the process of proving the Fannes' inequality, it says: A moment’s thought shows that $\left|r_i − s_i\right| \le 1/2$ for all i, The ...
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What is the conditional min-entropy of a pure bipartite state?

In this paper, it is stated that the conditional min-entropy $H(A|B)_{\rho_{AB}}$ of $A$ conditioned on $B$ for any $\textbf{pure}$ quantum system $\rho_{AB}=|\psi_{AB} \rangle \langle \psi_{AB} |$ is ...
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Derive the Concavity of Quantum Conditional Entropy from Strong subadditivity

In Exercise 11.25, Page 522, Entropy and information, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Nielsen and Chuang, it is required to show that the concavity of the conditional entropy may be ...
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Find the minimal and maximal of $\widehat{S}_f (\rho \| U^* \sigma U)$

I have been study the minimal (maximal) of a $f-$divergence. Fumio Hiai introduced the $\widehat{S}_f (\rho \| \sigma)$ divergence in his article. $$\widehat{S}_f (\rho \| \sigma) := \text{Tr} \sigma^{...
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Quantum Relative entropy- the math and intuition

I am new to quantum information theory and have been reading Mark Wilde's notes on quantum relative entropy. http://www.markwilde.com/teaching/2015-fall-qit/lectures/lecture-19.pdf I have three basic ...
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Does the quantum relative entropy have a direct operational interpretation?

Consider the quantum relative entropy, defined as $$D(\rho\|\sigma) = \operatorname{tr}(\rho\log\rho)-\operatorname{tr}(\rho\log\sigma),$$ for all $\rho,\sigma\ge0$ such that $\operatorname{im}(\rho)\...
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Does the max-relative entropy satisfy $0 < D_{\max}(\rho \parallel I_A \otimes \sigma_B) < 1$?

The quantum conditional min-entropy is defined as $$H_{\min}(A|B) = - \inf\limits_{\sigma_B} D_{\max} \left( \rho_{AB} \parallel I_A \otimes \sigma_B \right)$$ where in general $$D_{\max}(\rho \...
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Why can the max-relative entropy be written as $D_{\max}(\rho \parallel \sigma) = \inf \{ \lambda : \rho \leq 2^\lambda \sigma \}$?

The quantum conditional min-entropy is defined as $$H_{\min}(A|B) = - \inf\limits_{\sigma_B} D_{\max} \left( \rho_{AB} \parallel I_A \otimes \sigma_B \right),$$ where $$D_{\max}(\rho \parallel I_A \...
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Prove that the conditional min-entropy is $H_{\rm min}(A|B)=\max_\sigma\sup\{\lambda:\,\rho\le 2^{-\lambda}(I\otimes\sigma)\}$

I have seen various definitions of quantum conditional min-entropy, which I believe are equivalent. $$H_{\min}(A|B) = - \inf\limits_{\sigma_B} D_{\max} \left( \rho_{AB} \parallel I_A \otimes \sigma_B ...
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Prove the equality conditions in the triangle inequality $S(A,B)\ge |S(A)-S(B)|$ for the von Neumann entropy

The triangle inequality or Araki-Lieb inequality of the von Neumann entropy is $$ S(A,B)\ge|S(A)-S(B)| $$ this is proven by introducing a system $R$ which purifies systems $A$ and $B$. Applying ...
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How to show $T(\rho,\sigma)≥\sum_i|r_i − s_i|$ with $r_i,s_i$ eigenvalues of $\rho,\sigma$?

The proof of the Fannes' inequality replies on the formula $T(ρ, σ)≥\sum_i|r_i − s_i|$, where $r_i,s_i$ are the eigenvalues of $\rho,\sigma$, in the descending order. In the proof given in Box 11.2, ...
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Prove $|η(r) − η(s)| ≤ η(|r − s|)$ when $|r − s| ≤ 1/2$ [closed]

Background If $\rho$ and $\sigma$ are density matrices such that the trace distance between them satisfies $T(\rho,\sigma)\leq1/e$. Then the Fannes' inequality states that $$|S(\rho)-S(\sigma)|\leq T(...
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Conditional entropy as relative entropy between probability distributions

Find the expression for the conditional entropy $H(Y|X)$ as a relative entropy between two probability distributions. Use this expression to deduce that $H(Y |X)≥0$, and to find the equality ...
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How is the von Neumann entropy of a state defined from its eigendecomposition?

The definition of the von Neumann entropy of a mixed state says that it can be calculated as the Shannon entropy of coefficients of the decomposition of the state into a sum of projectors. My question:...
eternalstudent's user avatar
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Can't understand how $D_{A,B} + D_{A,C} \ge E_{A,B}+E_{A,C}$ is proved used the subadditivity of entropy

I am reading Monogamy properties of quantum and classical correlations. Eq.10 states that $$D_{A,B} + D_{A,C} \ge E_{A,B}+E_{A,C},$$ where $D_{i,j}$ is the quantum discord, and $E_{A,B}$ is the ...
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Qualitative meaning of the bond dimension of a matrix product state

Consider a matrix product state (MPS) with a bond dimension $D$. What is the physical intuition behind the bond dimension? Is it, in any way, related to the spatial geometry? In this note, it is ...
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von Neumann entropy of an arbitrary composition system

I understand the von Neumann entropy of a $2$-composite system is that of the reduced density matrix? What is the von Neumann entropy of an entanglement of a more than $3$ composite system?
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Thermodynamic Speed Limit to Quantum Computing

There's a lot of mystifying jargon in the field of quantum computation, so I would like to examine some elementary physics to maybe help clarify the assumptions being made. Is it not true that the ...
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Difference between min/max-entropies and the von Neumann entropy

Consider the (smooth) min-entropy, max-entropy and von Neumann entropy of a given density operator $\rho_A$. Does a small gap between $H_{\max(\min)}(A)_\rho$ and $H(A)_\rho$ implies a small gap ...
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In what sense is the "conditional min-entropy" a conditional entropy?

$\newcommand{\H}{\mathsf{H}}\newcommand{\Hmin}{\H_{\rm min}}\newcommand{\D}{\mathsf{D}}\newcommand{\Dmax}{\D_{\rm max}}$Consider the conditional min-entropy $\Hmin(A|B)_\rho$, discussed e.g. in this ...
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Why are "smooth entropic quantities" useful/necessary?

Consider the $\epsilon$-smoothed relative max-entropy of $\rho$ with respect to $Q$, defined as (following Watrous' notation from these notes): $$\mathrm D_{\rm max}^{\epsilon}(\rho\|Q) = \min_{\xi\in ...
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What is the idea behind compressibility results in terms of Renyi entropies?

In (Tomamichel 2015), in (1.2) the author mentions the result that a source $X$ with probability distribution $\rho\equiv\rho_X$ admits an $(\varepsilon,m)$-code as long as there is some $\alpha\in[\...
glS's user avatar
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5 votes
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What is entropy quantum computing?

Recently there is news concerning some computational breakthroughs by using so-called "entropy quantum computing": https://thequantuminsider.com/2022/07/20/qci-solves-3854-variable-problem-...
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What is the conditional min-entropy for diagonal ("classical") matrices?

The conditional min-entropy, discussed e.g. in these notes by Watrous, as well as in this other post, can be defined as $$\mathsf{H}_{\rm min }(\mathsf{X} \mid \mathsf{Y})_{\rho}\equiv -\inf _{\sigma \...
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Entanglement entropy for graph states defined on a tree graph

Consider a $k-\text{ary}$ tree $T$, for a constant $k$. Consider the corresponding graph state $|\mathsf{G}_T \rangle$ that is defined on $T$. Is it true that $|\mathsf{G}_T \rangle$ saturates the ...
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How to take Statevector for subsystem?

I want to calculate the 2nd Renyi entropy using the density matrix in Qiskit. To do this, I need to calculate the $Tr(\rho^2)$ for subsystem. The complete system consists of 12 qubits from which I ...
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2 answers
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Derivation of the linear cross entropy

I'm looking at cross-entropy benchmarks and there's much that I'm reading at the moment but I'm stuck on one detail: how to derive the linear cross-entropy formula from the cross-entropy formula. The ...
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Understanding conditional $L_2$ distances

I see that conditional $L_2$ distances from uniform are defined in the following way: $L_2(\rho_{AB}\vert \sigma_B)= \text{tr}\left(((\rho_{AB}- \mu_{A} \otimes \rho_{B}) (\mathbb{I}_A \otimes \...
Root's user avatar
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What is "linear" in linear entropy?

Why is the linear entropy, defined by $S_L = 1 - \textrm{Tr} \rho^2$, called linear?
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Data Processing equality variation

Let $\rho_{AB}$ be a state and $T: B \rightarrow C$ be a CPTP map with $\sigma_{AC}= T(\rho_{AB})$. It is well known that $H_{\infty}(A \vert B)_{\rho} \geq H_{\infty}(A \vert C)_{\sigma}$ (aka data ...
Root's user avatar
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What is a "maximally mixed state"?

What is meant by maximally mixed states? Does this mean that there are partially mixed states? For example, consider $\rho_{GHZ} = \left| {GHZ} \right\rangle \left\langle {GHZ} \right|$ and $\rho_W =...
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Why von Neumann entropy requires diagonalization and linear entropy doesn't?

The linear entropy for a state $\rho$ is defined as $S_L = 1 - Tr[\rho^2]$, while as von Neumann entropy as $S_{N} = -Tr[\rho \ln \rho]$. According to quantiki, the computation of $S_{N}$ requires ...
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If information is increase in entropy, why does large entropy mean little information?

Excuse me since this is an elementary question in information theory. I am asking this question here since the statement "large entropy means little information" is mentioned in the first ...
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Data processing inequality for relative entropy in the presence of an amplitude damping channel

Consider the single qubit quantum depolarizing channel, given by $$T(\rho) = (1- p)\rho + p \frac{\mathbb{I}}{2}. $$ For an $n$ qubit state $\rho$, according to Definition 6.1 of this paper, the ...
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Proof of upper and lower bound (Gilbert-Varshamov bound) for linear code

I am trying to prove the following bounds for a $[n, k]$ code that can correct $t$ errors \begin{align} 1-H\left(\frac{t}{n}\right)\geq \frac{k}{n}\geq 1-H\left(\frac{2t}{n}\right) \end{align} where \...
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Entanglement entropy and depth

I wanted to verify two intuitions about the entanglement entropy of quantum states. Consider an $n$ qubit quantum state, prepared by a depth $d$ circuit acting on $|0\rangle^{\otimes n}$ and a ...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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Does entanglement entropy follow a volume or an area law for 2D cluster states?

Consider a 2D cluster state defined on a rectangular lattice, which is universal for one way quantum computers. For a description of the state, see for example question 2 in this problem set. Now, ...
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Max-relative entropy quasi-convexity inequality under partial trace

The max-relative entropy between two states is defined as $$D_{\max }(\rho \| \sigma):=\log \min \{\lambda: \rho \leq \lambda \sigma\}.$$ It is known that the max-relative entropy is quasi-convex. ...
user1936752's user avatar
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Quasi concavity of max-relative entropy?

The max-relative entropy between two states is defined as $$D_{\max }(\rho \| \sigma):=\log \min \{\lambda: \rho \leq \lambda \sigma\}.$$ It is known that the max-relative entropy is quasi-convex. ...
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