Questions tagged [entanglement]

For questions about the principle and application of quantum entanglement. It is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole. (Wikipedia)

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Can you detect if the collapse of an entangled pair using a Hadamard gate?

I'm trying to understand how the Hadamard gate works with entangled pairs. If I have two particles A and B which are entangled and have gone through a Hadamard gate to become super-positioned Qubits, ...
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Does entanglement entropy follow a volume or an area law for 2D cluster states?

Consider a 2D cluster state defined on a rectangular lattice, which is universal for one way quantum computers. For a description of the state, see for example question 2 in this problem set. Now, ...
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Can the spin-1/2 720° rotation trick apply to qubits?

The idea of a 4π rotation to return an electron to its original state instead of just a single 2π rotation exists - but can this idea apply to qubits or entangled qubits? Are there any use cases for ...
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Are $(|00\rangle-|11\rangle)/\sqrt2$ and $(|11\rangle-|00\rangle)/\sqrt2$ the same quantum state?

The state $(|00\rangle-|11\rangle)/\sqrt2$ is an entangled state. If we think about the state $(|11\rangle-|00\rangle)/\sqrt2$, is this also entangled, but with maybe a phase change? The above two can ...
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Why doesn't this simpler teleportation idea work?

This circuit: The first (upper) qubit is the one we want to teleport, so could start it any state, call $\alpha|0\rangle+\beta|1\rangle$. Our goal is to teleport it to the third (bottom) bit. After ...
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What is the difference between the two entanglement circuits?

For a three qubits system to be in an entanglement(GHZ) state, the circuit can be built as per Qiskit, Here, the control bit of the second X gate is on q0. what if the control bit is shifted to q1. ...
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What are the typical gate times for single-qubit and 2-qubit gates for ion trap, superconducting, neutral atom, photonic, spin QC?

What are the typical gate times for single-qubit and 2-qubit gates for -- ion trap, -- superconducting, -- neutral atom, -- photonic, -- spin quantum computers based on today's technologies?
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How many physical qubits are needed to encode a logical qubit on ion trap, superconducting, neutral atom, photonic QC?

How many physical qubits are needed to encode a logical qubit on an -- ion trap, -- superconducting, -- neutral atom, -- photonic, -- spin quantum computer based on today's technologies?
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Are the first and second qubits of the state $| 111 \rangle + | 010 \rangle + | 101 \rangle + | 000 \rangle$ entangled with each another?

State of qubits: $\frac{1}{2} (| 111 \rangle + | 010 \rangle + | 101 \rangle + | 000 \rangle)$ Are the first and second qubits of this register entangled with each another?
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What does it mean to be in a superposition of eigenstates in a LC oscillator?

In superconducting qubits, we use a circuit with a specific type of inductor and quantize the Hamiltonian. Because it's an anharmonic oscillator, we say that it has states -- $|0\rangle$ and $|1\...
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Can entangled photons create entanglement in material particles?

Is it possible that two entangled photons when absorbed by two material particles, say two atoms, lead to the entanglement of these atoms? Is there any published research on this topic?
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Can LOCC operations take product states to non-product states?

Given a product state $\rho^{(1)} \otimes \rho^{(2)}$, can this state become non-product state under LOCC? Can LOCC create correlations between two systems?
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What is the Schmidt number of generalized GHZ and W states?

Consider generalizations of the GHZ state and the W state to $n$ qubits. What is the Schmidt number of these two states for any bipartition $ c n $ and $(1 - c) ~n $, for $c < 1$? Does it depend on ...
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Finding Wigner function of four maximal entangled Bell state

How can we find a Wigner function for the four maximally entangled Bell states $(|00\rangle \pm |11\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$, $(|01\rangle \pm |10\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$? I have used the basis where labels for ...
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What does $H$ being asymptotically equivalent to $(a+b) \sigma_1 \otimes \sigma_1$ mean?

For the Hamiltonian $H=a \sigma_1 \otimes \sigma_1 + b \sigma_2 \otimes \sigma_2$, where $\sigma_i$ are the well known Pauli matrices, and $a$ and $b$ are real, what does it mean that: asymptotically ...
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What does the partial trace of $|W\rangle$ states represent physically?

Given the W-state $|W\rangle = |001\rangle + |010\rangle + |100\rangle$, where $|ijk \rangle $implies $|i\rangle_A \otimes |j\rangle_B \otimes |k \rangle_C$, the partial trace over first qubit turns ...
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What is meant by "double speed" in dense coding protocol?

As mentioned in this article, "This (densecoding) lets you transmit at double speed until the pre-delivered qubits run out." What is meant by double speed here?
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Does the controlled Pauli Z gate cause entanglement?

I'm trying to understand the relationship between the factorability of a 2 qubit gate and that gate's ability to cause entanglement. I've begun by considering the controlled Pauli Z gate. After ...
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What conditions on the coefficients of a bipartite pure state imply it being entangled?

With $\{ |e\rangle_j \}_{j=1}^{dim. \mathcal{H}_A}$ for $\mathcal{H}_A$ and $\{|f\rangle_j \}_{j=1}^{dim. \mathcal{H}_B}$ for $\mathcal{H}_B$, the product state reads \begin{equation} |u\rangle \...
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What are examples of "LOCC linked" quantum instruments?

Define a quantum instrument $\mathfrak J$ as a collection of completely positive (CP) maps $(\mathcal E_j:j\in\Theta)\subset\mathrm{CP}(\mathcal H)$, such that $\sum_j \mathcal E_j$ is also trace-...
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Generalizing the circuit for quantum teleportation for $n$-qubit states? [duplicate]

So the usual quantum circuit I know for quantum teleportation allows for the teleportation of the state on a single qubit, in the following way: How easy is to generalize this algorithm to allow for ...
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Is it possible to collapse a superposition into a preset state such that all entangled qubits collapse to the same state?

Ideally, I'd be able to apply an operation to qubit 0 that would collapse the superposition to a set state (say 1) on qubit 0 & 1. The operation applied to qubit 0 would be a one qubit operation (...
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How to show that Werner states produce correlations explainable via local hidden variable models?

Werner states can be written as $$\rho_W= p\frac{\Pi_+}{\binom{n+1}{2}} +(1-p)\frac{\Pi_-}{\binom{n}{2}}, $$ with $\Pi_\pm\equiv\frac12(I\pm\mathrm{SWAP})$ projectors onto the $\pm1$ eigenspaces of ...
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Can changing reference frames generate entanglement in identical particles?

Suppose we have a pair of qubits, physically realised as two spin-half particles in some separable pure state $|\psi\rangle$, separated by a distance '$l$', large enough to be regarded as ...
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3answers
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Is there any simple mathematical proof that measurement destroys entanglement?

Is there a simple mathematical way to prove that measurement destroys entanglement? I can see that this is indeed true if I just take a specific measurement on an entangled state. What I am looking ...
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Why can no pair of single qubits look like $\frac{1}{\sqrt2}(|00\rangle+|11\rangle$)?

I've just started to learn Quantum Computing and, to do it, I'm reading the course "Introduction from Quantum Computing" by IBM. Now, I'm reading the chapter "Entangled states", ...
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How to implement a quantum array

I'm trying to implement a quantum array. That is one that stores qubits and can be indexed via qubits. I can create one that handles setting values fairly easy. Have two registers, one for the ...
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Do entangled measurements across multiple copies help in state distinguishability?

Consider two density matrices $\rho$ and $\sigma$. The task is to distinguish between these two states, given one of them --- you do not know beforehand which one. There is an optimal measurement to ...
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How to analyze the following quantum circuit?

I'm trying to analyze the following quantum circuit The goal here is to analyze the final outputs at q3 & q4. For inputs, at q0 & q1, one of the Bell state $$|\psi\rangle = \frac{|01\rangle + ...
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Is the CNOT in the standard three-qubit circuit for the GHZ state necessary?

This is a very basic question about the GHZ state. I know the standard construction: A Hadamard on one qubit, and then CNOT gates with targets on all the other ones. However, why can't I just have $n$...
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How much information is stored in entangled states (IBM report Quantum Decade)?

In its report Quantum Decade, IBM claims that we need 512 classical bits to represent two-qubits entangled state (see graphic on pg. 2 in the report). This seems a little bit odd to me. Lets have a ...
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What is a maximal entangled multipartite state?

We know the four Bell states are the maximal entangled states for two-qubit states, and we know if a state cannot be written as the tensor product by its subsets, then it is a entangled state, so is ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between having a single-qubit state and knowing a result of a measurement you want to perform on it?

In the quantum teleportation protocol Alice can send Bob an unknown quantum state $|\psi\rangle$. If the only thing Bob does with $|\psi\rangle$ is to measure it in some basis, I guess it would be ...
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1answer
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How to make sense of phases of individual qubits in the context of multiple entangled qubits?

I hear that phase information of qubits is important and you can clearly see the phase of a qubit when represented on the Bloch sphere. But, I am not sure what to think of the phase of individual ...
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Are nearly all pure two-qubit state entangled?

I am using the code below, utilizing QETLAB's RandomStateVector(4) and IsPPT, to generate a random state and to judge whether the state is entangled or separable: ...
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1answer
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Is there any possibility to draw graphs for a maximally entangled state?

I am working on quantum entanglement swapping and I have derived that: $|\psi\rangle=\frac{1}{2}(|0001\rangle+|0010\rangle+|0100\rangle+|1000\rangle)$ Is there any possibility that I can make a ...
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How to deal with entanglement relativistically?

When discussing relativistic quantum mechanics, Dirac notation is dropped completely which makes the description of entangled particles difficult. However when discussing quantum entanglement and ...
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Why are Bell states the maximally entangled ones?

I just want to know why actually Bell states are examples of maximally entangled states and significance of that "maximal" term. Is there anything for proving that?
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How to efficiently construct quantum circuits of oracles in multi-target quantum search?

In standard Grover's quantum search with only one target or its extension of multi-target quantum search, one of the two key parts is to quantize the boolean function $$f(x):\{0,1,\cdots,N-1\}\...
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1answer
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Can we do error correction for entangled particles?

There are several quantum error correction techniques, such as 3-qubit bit-flip code, and Shor’s 9-qubit code. 3-qubit bit-flip code is a straightforward technique for correcting a single error (...
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What are min and max overlaps of a maximally entangled state with a separable state?

Let $A,B$ be Hilbert spaces of dimension $d$. Let $\rho$ be some separable quantum state of the composite system $AB$. Given a maximally entangled state: $$\vert\phi\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{d}}\sum_{i=...
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Intuition for why $\frac{|00\rangle+|11\rangle}{\sqrt{2}}$ can be written as $\frac{|++\rangle+|--\rangle}{\sqrt{2}}$

In analyzing measurement of $\frac{|00\rangle+|11\rangle}{\sqrt{2}}$ in the local $|+\rangle$, $|−\rangle$ basis, through algebra manipulation, the initial state is first written as $\frac{|++\rangle+|...
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What does "measurement destroys information" mean?

I am reading a paper on quantum cryptography. The author used two facts: quantum- information cannot be copied and Furthermore, measurements destroy information... For the first statement, I came ...
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Quantum check sample implementation

I've been trying to figure out how to create a simple circuit in Qiskit to create a check (cheque ) generation and verification as described in this paper. I started with 3 qubits, first one with the ...
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What is the role of entanglement in quantum-computational speed-up?

The way I see it, there are three main quantum properties utilized in quantum computing - superposition, quantum interference, and quantum entanglement. I'm looking to understand which one is ...
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Unitary Transformations for States with Same Entanglement [duplicate]

$\newcommand{\Ket}[1]{\left|#1\right>}$ I know this has been asked before in another context (How to construct local unitary transformations mapping a pure state to another with the same ...
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2answers
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How to construct local unitary transformations mapping a pure state to another with the same entanglement?

$\newcommand{\Ket}[1]{\left|#1\right>}$In Nielsen's seminal paper on entanglement transformations (https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9811053), he gives a converse proof for the entanglement ...
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1answer
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This is a question about IBM quantum circuit used to generate the quantum cheque state

I'm learning about quantum cheque. And I read "Experimental realization of quantum cheque using a five-qubit quantum computer" which is written by Bikash K. Behera ,Anindita Banerjee and ...
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2answers
365 views

Qiskit CNOT-gate matrix mixup?

In the qiskit textbook chapter 1.3.1 "The CNOT-Gate" it says that the matrix representation on the right is the own corresponding to the circuit shown above, with q_0 being the control and ...
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A way to check if entanglement is increased or decreased

I was wondering if there is a way to check if the amount of entanglement is increased or decreased after a quantum operation without calculating the actual value. That is, it does not concern with the ...

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