# Questions tagged [unitarity]

For questions related to the unitarity (unitary evolution) of quantum systems, as applicable to quantum computing or quantum information.

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### Hadamard gate for three qubits; inconsistency between IBM and Matlab

I am trying to build a large and quite complex three qubit quantum circuit on IBMs quantum computer. I have a specific unitary which I am trying to implement and I am building a circuit following the ...
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### How can I convert the unitary matrix $e^\frac{i\pi}{2}$ into a quantum circuit in Qiskit?

How can I put the unitary matrix $$e^\frac{i\pi}{2}I$$ to the quantum circuit? I don't know if it is belong to $$U3(\theta, \phi, \lambda), U2(\phi, \lambda), U1(\lambda)$$ Thanks a lot.
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### Is the Haar measure invariant under conjugation?

Denote the Haar measure on the unitary group $U(\mathcal X)$ by $\eta$. Does this equation hold (assuming the integral exists): $\int d\eta(U) f(U) = \int d\eta(U) f(U^\dagger)$? Intuitively this ...
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### Bipartite states whose coefficients are entries of a unitary matrix

I've been trying to solve this question It seems that in order to show it has unit length, we must show that $$\frac{1}{d} \sum_{m, n=0}^{d=1} \lvert U_{m, n}\rvert ^2 = 1$$ I've tried searching ...
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### Initial assumption of the unitary that allows us to estimate the label function

You can find the paper here , in which they describe the architecture of a QNN that can be used to learn binary functions and correctly classify unseen data. They say that for each binary label ...
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### Why is a Hadamard gate unitary?

The Hadamard gate is a unitary gate, but how does the matrix times its own conjugate transpose actually result in the $I$ matrix? I am currently looking at it as a scalar, 0.707..., multiplied by the ...
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### What is the unitary operator realizing a given CPTP operator

Complete Positive Trace Preserving Map (CPTP) operator is the most general operation that can be performed on a quantum system. This post mentioned that a CPTP operator is nothing but a unitary ...
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### Are CPTP operators and unitary operators the same thing?

I am reading some quantum papers (In particular, this one page 34) . One of the theorem statement reads, "For every CPTP operator M, we have that .... " I ...
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### Finding a global phase that transform the Hadamard gate to an element of $SU(2)$ and propose an evoultion operator which implents the operation

I was looking back over an old assignment and I came across a question I wasn't quite sure how to do the problem statement is as follows: The Hadamard rotation is an element of the group $U(2)$. (i)...
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### What do they mean by “qubit can't be copied”?

What does it mean by ''qubit can't be copied'' ? In a note, it is saying that: Copying a qubit means $$U|\psi\rangle_A|0\rangle_B=|\psi\rangle_A|\psi\rangle_B$$ i.e; applying a unitary transformation ...
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### What is the smallest quantum circuit to produce two-qubit state (a,b,b,b)?

How can I synthesis a two-qubit quantum state of the state vector (a,b,b,b) using basic quantum-gate circuit (arbitrary single-qubit rotation and controlled $Z$ gate)? And further, can I know a given ...