Questions tagged [quantum-operation]

For questions about completely positive (CP) linear maps between quantum states. Can also be used for trace-preserving CP maps (quantum channels). For questions about unitary operations, please use quantum-gate instead.

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SWAP test and density matrix distinguishability

Let us either be given the density matrix \begin{equation} |\psi\rangle\langle \psi| \otimes |\psi\rangle\langle \psi| , \end{equation} for an $n$ qubit pure state $|\psi \rangle$ or the maximally ...
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37 views

In Schumacher’s noiseless channel coding theorem, how do we get the exponents in $|0\rangle ^{\otimes n(1−p)/2}|1\rangle ^{\otimes n(1−p)/2}$?

On pg. 55 in Nielsen and Chuang, it's said that: the $|0\rangle + |1\rangle$ product can be well approximated by a superposition of states of the form $|0\rangle ^{\otimes n(1−p)/2}|1\rangle ^{\...
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68 views

What is an algorithm to generate random error in depolarizing channel

The Qunatum Depolarizing Channel is parametrized by a single real variable $\lambda, 0 \leq \lambda \leq 1$. I have a system of $n$ qubits. I'd like to generate random errors from that channel. These ...
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57 views

What is the quantum capacity of the combined amplitude and phase damping channel?

Quantum capacity for the amplitude damping channel and the pure dephasing channel have closed-form formulas as it can be seen in section 24.7.2 of From Classical to Quantum Shannon Theory. However, I ...
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52 views

What is the algorithm for the optimal decoder in a quantum erasure channel?

I'm reading this paper : Holographic Quantum Error Correcting Codes and on page 3 they describe an optimal decoder for erasure channel. The description is for CSS codes but they claim that "it is ...
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36 views

How's the depolarization channel applied to one qubit circuits?

Suppose that in all gates used in a one qubit circuit the depolarization channel is applied, i.e. ...
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78 views

Why the partial derivative of cost function is written in this form?

I am reading a paper about QCNN and BP problem. And in the paper there is a part illustrating the relation between the trainability and variance of the cost. The cost function is written as, $C(\theta)...
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61 views

What is a covariant quantum channel?

A novice to this topic, I am trying to understand the notion of (irreducible) Covariant Quantum Channels. This article provides a definition that is not very "physical". My question: What ...
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50 views

What does it mean for a channel to be independent of the input state?

A 2007 paper shows how to construct quantum channels on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces $$\sigma=\Phi(\rho)=\sum_i K_i \rho K_i^\dagger,\qquad \sum_i K_i^\dagger K_i=\mathbb{I}$$ for which $\Phi(\...
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72 views

Quantum channels and maps: Confusing terminology

1. On page 73 of John Watrous' famous book, a quantum channel is defined as a linear map $$\Phi: L(\mathcal{X})\rightarrow L(\mathcal{Y})$$ Now $L(\mathcal{X})$ stands for $L(\mathcal{X},\mathcal{X})$...
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Uhlmann's theorem analogue for channels

Let the stabilized channel fidelity between two channels $M_{A\rightarrow B}$ and $N_{A\rightarrow B}$ be defined as $$F(M,N) = \min\limits_{\vert\psi\rangle_{AR}} F\left((M\otimes I_R)\vert\psi\...
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225 views

How does the spectral decomposition of the Choi operator relate to Kraus operators?

In Nielsen and Chuang's QCQI, there is a proof states that Theorem 8.1: The map $\mathcal{E}$ satisfies axioms A1, A2 and A3 if and only if $$ \mathcal{E}(\rho)=\sum_{i} E_{i} \rho E_{i}^{\dagger} $$...
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72 views

Prove that autocompatible LCPT maps are antidegradable

A LCPT map $\Phi$ is antidegradable if and only if it is compatible with itself. The proof that an antidegradable map (satisfying $\Phi=\Lambda_E\circ \tilde\Phi$ where $\tilde\Phi$ is the ...
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430 views

What is the rank of a quantum channel?

I read the following sentence in a paper: We consider a quantum channel $\mathcal{E}_{\omega}(\rho)=\sum_{i=1}^{r} K_{i} \rho K_{i}^{\dagger}$ where $r$ is the rank of the channel. I didn't find the ...
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1answer
97 views

How does the Kraus decomposition imply the Stinespring representation?

To show that the Kraus decomposition $\Phi(\rho)=\sum_{k=1}^D M_k\rho_S M_k^\dagger$ implies the Stinespring form $$\Phi(\rho)=\text{tr}_E[U_{SE}(\rho_S\otimes|0\rangle\langle 0|_E)U_{SE}^\dagger]$$ ...
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81 views

Why are quantum channels described by linear maps?

Why should the quantum channels be described by linear maps?
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87 views

Finding Kraus operators from the output density matrix

I have a question regarding Kraus operators. Any quantum channel can be written in terms of Kraus operators as $E(\rho)= \sum_{i=0}^n K_i \rho K_i^{\dagger}$ where $\rho$ is the initial density ...
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49 views

What can be said about the non-negativity of the relative entropy of $S(\rho_{AB}||\rho_{B})$?

Taking $\rho_{AB}=\rho_{A}\otimes \rho_{B}$, where $S(\rho_{A})$ and $S(\rho_{B})$ aren't 0, it's easy to see that $$S(\rho_{AB}||I \otimes \rho_{B})=-S(\rho_{A})-S(\rho_{B})+S(\rho_{B})=-S(\rho_{A}).$...
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155 views

How does the invertibility of a quantum map reflect on its Kraus operators?

Consider a quantum map $\Phi\in\mathrm T(\mathcal X)$, that is, a linear operator $\Phi:\mathrm{Lin}(\mathcal X)\to\mathrm{Lin}(\mathcal X)$ for some finite-dimensional complex vector spaces $\mathcal ...
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114 views

Is a quantum channel reversible if all Kraus operators are proportional to unitaries?

In preskill's online lecture p.13, he stated that if a channel is reversible, i.e., $\varepsilon^{-1}\circ\varepsilon(\rho)=\rho$ for any $\rho$, then the kraus operator of the quantum channel must be ...
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How is $I(\rho^{QC})=I_{CC}(\rho^{QC})$

On page 3 of this paper, for the proof of theorem 1, it states that, using Lemma 2 from the previous page, that if $$I(\Lambda_{A}\otimes\Gamma_{B})[\rho]=I(\rho))$$ then there exists $\Lambda_{A}^{*}$...
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58 views

Tradeoff between error and rates of quantum communication

Suppose Alice and Bob share $n$ copies of a noiseless quantum channel $I_{A\rightarrow B}$ which can be used to send quantum states and $H_A\cong H_B$ i.e. the input and output Hilbert spaces are the ...
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47 views

unexpected effect of coherent unitary error in qiskit

I'm trying to simulate the effect of a coherent unitary Z rotation at an arbitrary angle of a single qubit on the fidelity of a quantum circuit. I am using the qiskit Aer noisy simulator. More ...
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107 views

What properties do Kraus operators of Markovian processes have?

It is well-known that the Kraus operator can describe more kinds of processes than master equations. For example, the master equation cannot describe non-markovian processes while the Kraus operator ...
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261 views

Can quantum circuits/operations have truth tables?

In the caption for the following figure, the word "truth table" is put inside a quotation. I am wondering if this means that the truth table the caption refers to isn't exactly a real truth ...
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390 views

Inverting the depolarizing channel

I have a depolarizing channel acting on $2^n \times 2^n$ Hermitian matrices, defined as $$\tag{1} \mathcal{D}_p (X) = p X + (1-p) \frac{\text{Tr}(X)}{2^n} \mathbb{I}_{2^n} $$ where $\mathbb{I}_{d}$ is ...
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135 views

Bounding diamond norm distance using probability of error in transmission of classical information

Let us consider an encode, noisy channel and a decoder such that classical messages $m\in\mathcal{M}$ can be transmitted with some small error. That is, for a message $m$ that is sent by Alice, Bob ...
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88 views

A way to check if entanglement is increased or decreased

I was wondering if there is a way to check if the amount of entanglement is increased or decreased after a quantum operation without calculating the actual value. That is, it does not concern with the ...
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32 views

Increasing entropy for projective LCPT mapping

Given a set of projectors $\{P_i\}$ acting on a space $\mathcal H_S$, let $\Phi$ be the LCPT map defined by $$\Phi(\rho)=\sum_i P_i\rho P_i.$$ The goal is to show that $S(\Phi(\rho))\ge S(\rho)$. The ...
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How does the extremality of a POVM reflect on its Naimark dilation isometry?

Let $\mu:\Sigma\to\mathrm{Pos}(\mathcal X)$ be some POVM, with $\Sigma$ the finite set of possible outcomes, and $\mathrm{Pos}(\mathcal X)$ the set of positive semidefinite operators on a finite-...
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1answer
36 views

How do successive operators act in the Heisenberg picture?

In the Schrodinger picture, it is clear how write a single gate for two operators. For example if operators $A$ then $B$ act on a state $\vert \psi \rangle$, this gives $BA\vert \psi \rangle$, (noting ...
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27 views

What is the correct notation to denote operations conditional on a measurement outcome?

What is the correct mathematical notation to describe the following setup? I have classical state in register $A$ which I can think of as $\sum_i p_i \vert i\rangle\langle i \vert_A$. I measure this ...
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3answers
110 views

How to describe the evolution of a density matrix using the Choi matrix?

How do I apply the Choi matrix on a Density matrix. Say my process is a Hadamard gate, and my input state is the ground state on 1 qubit (qubit id 0). $U = H = \dfrac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \begin{bmatrix}1&...
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1answer
48 views

Equivalent statement of the unitary freedom of Kraus operator?

There is a well-known form of the unitary freedom of Kraus operators, which can be found in Nielsen's book, stating that two sets of Kraus operators describe the same physical process of the system(...
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324 views

How are eavesdroppers detected when using BB84 in the presence of noise?

I would like to expand upon this question: What is the probability of detecting Eve's tampering, in BB84? Let's say that when the receiver (colloquially referred to as Bob) receives a qubit and ...
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1answer
58 views

Is the trace norm monotone with respect to quantum operations?

The trace norm is defined to be $$\| K \| = \mathrm{tr}\sqrt{K^\dagger K}.$$ Is it true that we have $$\| \mathcal E(K) \|\leq \|K\|,$$ for any quantum operation $\mathcal{E}: A\otimes B \to A\otimes ...
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176 views

Determining whether there exists an equivalent set of unitary Kraus operators

I have a CPTP quantum channel $\mathcal{E}$ that I've characterized by an operator sum representation $\{E_i\}$ for $i=1, \dots, m$ which acts on an input state like $$ \mathcal{E}(\rho) = \sum_{i=1}^...
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3answers
82 views

Do sequences of operations (including measurements) applied to different halves of an entangled pair always commute?

Let us say $A$ has one half of an entangled qubit pair, and $B$ has the other half. $A$ may be able to perform any type of operation on their half of the pair, such as unitary operations, entangling ...
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95 views

What are examples of Kraus operators describing the process of control error?

Noise, such as photon loss or dephasing, is often described with Kraus operators. Are there examples of Kraus operators describing the process of control error?
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149 views

Can Kraus operators change a mixed state into a pure state?

It seems that Kraus operators cannot change a pure state into a mixed one (wrong). For any pure state can be written as $|\psi\rangle\langle\psi|$, so after the Kraus operators. It becomes $$\sum_l\...
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64 views

Is the map $\rho\rightarrow Tr(\sigma\rho)$ completely positive?

Let $\sigma$ be a fixed positive semidefinite matrix (edit: need unit trace too as pointed out if we want trace nonincreasing). Is the map $$N:H\rightarrow\mathbb{C}$$ given by $N(\rho) = Tr(\sigma\...
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91 views

How to use the Kraus operators to represent the total density matrix instead of the reduced one?

In Nielsen's book, the Kraus operator can be attained by trace out the enviroment: $$\operatorname{Tr}_{\rm env}[\hat{U}(|\psi\rangle\otimes|0\rangle)(\langle\psi|\otimes\langle 0|)\hat{U}^\dagger]. $$...
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1answer
107 views

Permutation covariant channels and their Stinespring dilations

I am interested in a quantum channel from $A^{\otimes n}$ to $B^{\otimes n}$ denoted as $N_{A^{\otimes n} \rightarrow B^{\otimes n}}(\cdot)$. Let $\pi(\cdot)$ be a permutation operation among the $n$ ...
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2answers
124 views

Prove that a Bell state is invariant under the single-qubit gate acting on both qubits

I have a Bell state ${\Psi}^{-}= \frac{1}{\sqrt2} (|01\rangle - |10\rangle).$ How can I prove that this state is invariant (up to a global phase), when doing the same unitary $U$ on each qubit? That ...
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1answer
62 views

For a bipartite operator $M\in L(H_{AB})$, suppose $0\leq M\leq \mathbb{I}$. Prove $M^{AB}\leq M^A\otimes \mathbb{I}$

As stated in the title, let $M$ be a linear operator on a finite bipartite Hilbert space. Suppose $0\leq M^{AB}\leq \mathbb{I}$ and $0\leq M^A,M^B\leq\mathbb{I}$, where $M^A=\mathrm{Tr}_B\left(M^{AB}\...
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93 views

Does the von Neumann entropy equal the smallest accessible Shannon entropy?

I've been reading about the von Neumann entropy of a state, as defined via $S(\rho)=-\operatorname{tr}(\rho\ln \rho)$. This equals the Shannon entropy of the probability distribution corresponding to ...
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1answer
55 views

Umambiguous discrimination using POVM with highest discriminate probability

I was studying Nielsen&Chuang's textbook (about page 92), and come up with a question that I cannot solve it. Given one of the two state $|\psi_1\rangle=|0\rangle$ and $|\psi_2\rangle=\frac{1}{\...
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197 views

What are examples of extremal non-projective POVMs?

Fix some finite-dimensional space $\mathcal X$. Define a POVM as a collection of positive operators summing to the identity: $\mu\equiv \{\mu(a):a\in\Sigma\}\subset{\rm Pos}(\mathcal X)$ such that $\...
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2answers
116 views

In quantum process tomography, how does $\chi$ characterize a quantum process?

I'm working through Nielsen and Chuang and I'm pretty confused by the discussion of quantum process tomography. I'm trying to work through an example of 1-qubit state tomography given by N&C (box ...
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4answers
141 views

Can a qubit be entangled with an arbitrary quantum state, without altering it?

For example, if an adversary were to get hold of one half of an entangled 2-qubit quantum state, $|\psi \rangle$, travelling along a channel, would they be able to entangle one of their own qubits ...

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