Questions tagged [haar-distribution]

Having to do with continuous distributions, which are 'uniform' in the sense of being invariant under some relevant symmetry. In the case of quantum information theory, this usually relates to unitarily invariant distributions on single-qubit states, many-qubit states, single-qubit unitary transformations, or many-qubit unitary transformations.

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Multiplication by a Haar random unitary two times

Consider a Haar random unitary $U$. I am trying to compute the value (or put a bound on) \begin{equation} \mathbb{E}\left[\left|\langle 0^{n} |U^{2} |0^{n}\rangle\right|^{2}\right]. \end{equation} The ...
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Approximating the average of a rational function with respect to the Haar measure

Suppose I have a state $|\psi\rangle = U|0\rangle$ where $U$ is a $d$-dimensional unitary sampled uniformly with respect the Haar measure. I'm interested in computing or approximating analytically an ...
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What is the expectation value ${\Bbb E}[\langle\psi,O\psi\rangle]$ over the Haar distribution?

What is the average $\mathbb{E}_{\text{Haar}}|\langle\psi|O\psi\rangle|$ of expectation of an arbitrary observable $O$ over the Haar distribution? Let $d$ be the dimension, i.e, the size of $O$. Do we ...
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How to show that the integral over all Haar states vanishes: $\int|\psi\rangle\,{\rm d}\psi = 0 $?

Can we show that the integral over all Haar states $|\psi \rangle $ is $$ \int |\psi \rangle \, \mathrm{d}\psi = 0~. $$ This is an integral over Haar vectors Reference to a post about what is Haar ...
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Sampling Haar over two systems

Say $M$ is a matrix acting on $C^r \otimes C^s$. $X$ is the system of dimension $r$, and $Y$ is the system of dimension $s$. With $|\psi\rangle$ sampled from Haar, how can we show that $$ \int (...
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Convergence of measure of products of random unitaries

I'm trying to read this paper by Emerson, Livine, Llyod (https://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.72.060302), arXiv version: (https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0503210.pdf). Essentially I ...
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What is a Haar random quantum state?

Can somebody please explain me what is a Haar random state? I am not able to find any friendly resource to read about it.
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Anticoncentration for two independent random quantum circuits in parallel

Consider two Haar random $n$ qubit unitaries, $U_1$ and $U_2$. Consider the quantum state $$|\psi\rangle = (U_1 \otimes U_2) |0^{2n}\rangle. $$ Let $p_x = |\langle x| \psi \rangle|^{2}$, for $x \in \{...
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Reduced density matrix of a Haar random state and its Schmidt decomposition

Consider a Haar random quantum state $|\psi\rangle$. Note that $$\rho =\mathbb{E}[|\psi\rangle\langle \psi|] = \frac{\mathbb{I}_{n}}{2^{n}}.$$ $\mathbb{I}_n$ is the identity operator on $n$ qubits. ...
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Random quantum states and Schur-Weyl duality

Consider the following density matrix over $n$ qubits, with $C$ being a single qubit operator: $$ \rho_{n} = \int_{C \sim \text{Haar}} \big(C|0\rangle\langle0|C^\dagger\big)^{\otimes n} dC. $$ Let's ...
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Optimality of the SWAP test versus weak Schur sampling for testing unitarily invariant properties

Consider the following setting. I am either given the density matrix $|\psi\rangle \langle \psi|^{\otimes k}$ or the density matrix $\frac{\mathbb{I}^{\otimes k}}{2^{nk}}$, where $\mathbb{I}$ is the $...
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1 answer
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At what depth and for what architecture are random quantum circuits $1$-designs?

I was confused about something related to quantum $1$ designs. Let us recap two facts we know about random circuit ensembles that form a $1$ design. $1$ design, for a quantum circuit over $n$ qubits, ...
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Random quantum circuits and general efficient POVM measurement

Let's consider a random quantum circuit $C$, applied to the $n$ qubit initial state $|0^{n}\rangle$, producing the state $|\psi\rangle$. Consider a general efficiently implementable $m$-outcome POVM ...
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Average output state of random quantum circuits

Let $|\psi\rangle = C_1 |0^{n}\rangle$ be a quantum state, such that $C_1$ is a Haar random unitary circuit. Consider a density matrix $\rho$ as follows \begin{equation} \rho_1 = \mathbb{E}[|\psi\...
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Spreading of entanglement with depth for Haar random states

Consider a Haar random quantum state of depth $d$. Consider any bipartition of this state. According to this paper (page $2$): Haar-random states on $n$ qudits are nearly maximally entangled across ...
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Spoofing XQUATH with the Feynman method

Consider the XQUATH conjecture for random quantum circuits, as mentioned here. (XQUATH, or Linear Cross-Entropy Quantum Threshold Assumption). There is no polynomial-time classical algorithm that ...
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Quantum hardness of XQUATH conjecture

Consider the XQUATH conjectures, as defined here (https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.12085, Definition 1). (XQUATH, or Linear Cross-Entropy Quantum Threshold Assumption). There is no polynomial-time ...
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Quantum supremacy: shallow depth Haar random circuits and unitary designs

I had a confusion about shallow depth Haar random quantum circuits. In this paper, in Section B (related works), it is mentioned that Haar random quantum circuits form approximate $2$-designs only ...
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Confusion about the output distribution of Haar random quantum states

Consider a Haar random quantum state $|\psi \rangle$. I was confused between two facts about $|\psi \rangle$, which appear related: Consider the output distribution of a particular $n$-qubit $|\psi \...
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4 votes
2 answers
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Is the column vector of a uniformly sampled random unitary matrix a uniformly sampled random state vector?

I am wondering if a random unitary matrix taken from a Haar measure (as in, it is uniformly sampled at random) can yield a uniformly sampled random state vector. In section 3 of this paper it says &...
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2 answers
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Question regarding integration of Haar random state

I am trying to understand the integration on page 4 of this paper. Consider a Haar random circuit $C$ and a fixed basis $z$. Each output probability of a Haar random circuit (given by $|\langle z | C |...
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1 answer
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How close or far apart are the distributions generated by two Haar random states?

Consider two $n$ qubit Haar-random quantum states $|\psi\rangle$ and $|\phi\rangle$. Let $D_{|\psi\rangle}$ and $D_{|\phi\rangle}$ be the two probability distributions (over $n$-bit strings) obtained ...
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4 votes
2 answers
347 views

Expected value of a Haar random quantum state multiplied by a unitary

Consider a quantity \begin{equation} \mathbb{E}\big[\langle z|\rho|z\rangle\big], \end{equation} where $\rho = |\psi \rangle \langle \psi|$ is a Haar-random state $n$-qubit quantum state and $z$ is ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Is the Haar measure invariant under conjugation?

Denote the Haar measure on the unitary group $U(\mathcal X)$ by $\eta$. Does this equation hold (assuming the integral exists): $\int d\eta(U) f(U) = \int d\eta(U) f(U^\dagger)$? Intuitively this ...
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What is the probability $\Pr(\|U-I\|_{\rm op}<\varepsilon)$ of a Haar-random unitary being close to the identity?

If one generates an $n\times n$ Haar random unitary $U$, then clearly $\Pr(U=I)=0$. However, for every $\epsilon>0$, the probability $$\Pr(\|U-I\|_{\rm op}<\varepsilon)$$ should be positive. How ...
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4 votes
2 answers
344 views

Is there a lower bound on the average diamond norm of two uniformly random unitaries U1 and U1 of dimension D that are sampled from haar measure?

I could not find any lower bound on the diamond norm for two uniformly random unitaries of dimension D sampled from the haar measure.
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10 votes
2 answers
487 views

On the distribution of the fidelity of a random product state with an arbitrary many-qubit state

Consider an arbitrary $n$-qubit state $\lvert \psi \rangle$. How much do we understand about the probability distribution of the fidelity of $\lvert \psi \rangle$ with a tensor product $\lvert \alpha \...
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