Questions tagged [haar-distribution]

Having to do with continuous distributions, which are 'uniform' in the sense of being invariant under some relevant symmetry. In the case of quantum information theory, this usually relates to unitarily invariant distributions on single-qubit states, many-qubit states, single-qubit unitary transformations, or many-qubit unitary transformations.

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Spreading of entanglement with depth for Haar random states

Consider a Haar random quantum state of depth $d$. Consider any bipartition of this state. According to this paper (page $2$): Haar-random states on $n$ qudits are nearly maximally entangled across ...
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152 views

Spoofing XQUATH with the Feynman method

Consider the XQUATH conjecture for random quantum circuits, as mentioned here. (XQUATH, or Linear Cross-Entropy Quantum Threshold Assumption). There is no polynomial-time classical algorithm that ...
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1answer
100 views

Quantum hardness of XQUATH conjecture

Consider the XQUATH conjectures, as defined here (https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.12085, Definition 1). (XQUATH, or Linear Cross-Entropy Quantum Threshold Assumption). There is no polynomial-time ...
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69 views

Quantum supremacy: shallow depth Haar random circuits and unitary designs

I had a confusion about shallow depth Haar random quantum circuits. In this paper, in Section B (related works), it is mentioned that Haar random quantum circuits form approximate $2$-designs only ...
2
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1answer
178 views

Confusion about the output distribution of Haar random quantum states

Consider a Haar random quantum state $|\psi \rangle$. I was confused between two facts about $|\psi \rangle$, which appear related: Consider the output distribution of a particular $n$-qubit $|\psi \...
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Is the column vector of a uniformly sampled random unitary matrix a uniformly sampled random state vector?

I am wondering if a random unitary matrix taken from a Haar measure (as in, it is uniformly sampled at random) can yield a uniformly sampled random state vector. In section 3 of this paper it says &...
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1answer
181 views

Question regarding integration of Haar random state

I am trying to understand the integration on page 4 of this paper. Consider a Haar random circuit $C$ and a fixed basis $z$. Each output probability of a Haar random circuit (given by $|\langle z | C |...
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1answer
156 views

How close or far apart are the distributions generated by two Haar random states?

Consider two $n$ qubit Haar-random quantum states $|\psi\rangle$ and $|\phi\rangle$. Let $D_{|\psi\rangle}$ and $D_{|\phi\rangle}$ be the two probability distributions (over $n$-bit strings) obtained ...
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167 views

Expected value of a Haar random quantum state multiplied by a unitary

Consider a quantity \begin{equation} \mathbb{E}\big[\langle z|\rho|z\rangle\big], \end{equation} where $\rho = |\psi \rangle \langle \psi|$ is a Haar-random state $n$-qubit quantum state and $z$ is ...
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121 views

Is the Haar measure invariant under conjugation?

Denote the Haar measure on the unitary group $U(\mathcal X)$ by $\eta$. Does this equation hold (assuming the integral exists): $\int d\eta(U) f(U) = \int d\eta(U) f(U^\dagger)$? Intuitively this ...
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223 views

What is the probability $\Pr(\|U-I\|_{\rm op}<\varepsilon)$ of a Haar-random unitary being close to the identity?

If one generates an $n\times n$ Haar random unitary $U$, then clearly $\Pr(U=I)=0$. However, for every $\epsilon>0$, the probability $$\Pr(\|U-I\|_{\rm op}<\varepsilon)$$ should be positive. How ...
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238 views

Is there a lower bound on the average diamond norm of two uniformly random unitaries U1 and U1 of dimension D that are sampled from haar measure?

I could not find any lower bound on the diamond norm for two uniformly random unitaries of dimension D sampled from the haar measure.
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On the distribution of the fidelity of a random product state with an arbitrary many-qubit state

Consider an arbitrary $n$-qubit state $\lvert \psi \rangle$. How much do we understand about the probability distribution of the fidelity of $\lvert \psi \rangle$ with a tensor product $\lvert \alpha \...