Questions tagged [quantum-advantage]

"Quantum advantage" or "quantum supremacy" is the potential ability of quantum computing devices to solve problems that classical computers practically cannot.

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What is the fastest quantum computational algorithm by which quantum computer speed up than classic one?

What is the fastest quantum computational algorithm by which quantum computers speed up than classic one? Of course, those speedup algorithms have to be proven.
5 votes
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Can we use cryptocurrency mining to verify claims of quantum advantage?

Beginning with the earlier works of work of Brakerski et al. or the more recent results of Kahanamoku-Meyer et al., interactive proofs of quantum advantage entail a classical verifier (Vicky) ...
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Any simple description of a circuit for Yamakawa-Zhandry algorithm?

Recently, popular sources (including Aaranson's blog and Quanta Magazine) have made it look like the recent Yamakawa-Zhandry algorithm is akin to Shor's algorithm, in the sense that it could ...
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Status of Google's quantum supremacy claim 2022

More than a year ago a couple of scientists made a splash by presenting a classical algorithm that took less than a week to simulate Sycamore's circuits on a small GPU cluster. Also, their simulations ...
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What arguments point towards D-Wave devices being potentially useful?

I'm looking for any evidence pointing towards D-Wave's approach to quantum computation being promising to achieve any sort of computational advantage with respect to classical devices. Note that I'm ...
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What are quantum computers actually doing today?

I am curious about what are quantum computers actually doing today. I seem to only be able to find information online about what they could be used for in the future (i.e. breaking encryption, quantum ...
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Understanding the supremacy regime plot in Google's "Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor"

I was going through the Google's 2019 paper & had difficulties regarding some details. How are they calculating XEB in quantum supremacy regime? To calculate the XEB,we also need the ideal ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Is there any rigorous proof that Quantum Annealing provides a quantum advantage?

Is there any rigorous proof that Quantum Annealing (QA) is of any benefit (e.g. in terms of time to optimal solution, convergence rate, etc.) for a specific problem? Or any empirical evidence for the ...
2 votes
3 answers
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Why do we need physical qubit if qubit can be simulated?

I do not see any advantage in constructing very costly and imperfect physical qubit while this qubit can be simulated with using conventional computer memory (noise-free). So what is the purpose when ...
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I have question about cost of 'modular multiplication unitary' in Shor's algorithm

Here modular multiplication unitary means $U_a : |s\rangle \to|as\mod N\rangle$. My main question is, can the modular multiplication unitary $U_a$ can be constructed in time polynomial in the number ...
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What tasks are quantum computers good at that classical computers are not?

At this stage, a large number of theoretical proofs have made us vaguely aware of the particularity of quantum computers. But what tasks are quantum computers good at that classical computers are not? ...
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Exponential advantage with Hadamard test

My question is the following: Let's assume that the only algorithm a quantum computer would be able to implement is the Hadamard test, which circuit is represented below, would we say that compared to ...
5 votes
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Quantum advantage without phase?

I'm wondering if one can (potentially) get any quantum advantage with $R_y$ single-qubit rotations and $CNOT$s only? (Note that I don't care about having a universal quantum computer.)
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Are qubits just analog, continuous classical bits? [duplicate]

Topologically, classical bits (cbits) are essentially special cases of qubits restricted to the poles of the Bloch sphere. However, this restriction doesn't seem to be classical per se, but is simply ...
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6 votes
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Proven quantum advantage (in the algorithmic sense) without error correction (for specific algo, or noise models)

I would like to know if there are some specific class of quantum algorithms, under some hypotheses about the noise model behind the quantum gates for which we know that there is an exponential ...
2 votes
2 answers
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Derivation of the linear cross entropy

I'm looking at cross-entropy benchmarks and there's much that I'm reading at the moment but I'm stuck on one detail: how to derive the linear cross-entropy formula from the cross-entropy formula. The ...
5 votes
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Are there quantum algorithms showing a double exponential advantage?

I would like to know if there are known quantum algorithms that provide a double exponential advantage compared to the best known classical algorithms. More precisely, if the characteristics of the ...
3 votes
1 answer
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What exactly makes VQE faster than classical optimization?

I have been trying to understand Variational Quantum Eigensolver (VQE), particularly from the non-linear binary programming perspective. But after reading a few resources I'm still confused about ...
2 votes
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What is the explicit best known quantum algorithm for LWE?

Consider the learning with errors(LWE) problem which is known to be hard for quantum computers. Let $q \geq 2$ be a prime integer. Consider us being given (polynomially many samples of) either: $$A, ...
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Schmidt vectors for random quantum states

Consider a random quantum circuit $U$ over $n$ qubits, drawn from the Haar measure. Consider the quantum state $$|\psi\rangle = U |0^{n}\rangle.$$ Now, partition $n$ into two and consider the Schmidt ...
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Anticoncentration for two independent random quantum circuits in parallel

Consider two Haar random $n$ qubit unitaries, $U_1$ and $U_2$. Consider the quantum state $$|\psi\rangle = (U_1 \otimes U_2) |0^{2n}\rangle. $$ Let $p_x = |\langle x| \psi \rangle|^{2}$, for $x \in \{...
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Reduced density matrix of a Haar random state and its Schmidt decomposition

Consider a Haar random quantum state $|\psi\rangle$. Note that $$\rho =\mathbb{E}[|\psi\rangle\langle \psi|] = \frac{\mathbb{I}_{n}}{2^{n}}.$$ $\mathbb{I}_n$ is the identity operator on $n$ qubits. ...
4 votes
1 answer
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Random quantum states and Schur-Weyl duality

Consider the following density matrix over $n$ qubits, with $C$ being a single qubit operator: $$ \rho_{n} = \int_{C \sim \text{Haar}} \big(C|0\rangle\langle0|C^\dagger\big)^{\otimes n} dC. $$ Let's ...
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Optimality of the SWAP test versus weak Schur sampling for testing unitarily invariant properties

Consider the following setting. I am either given the density matrix $|\psi\rangle \langle \psi|^{\otimes k}$ or the density matrix $\frac{\mathbb{I}^{\otimes k}}{2^{nk}}$, where $\mathbb{I}$ is the $...
2 votes
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At what depth and for what architecture are random quantum circuits $1$-designs?

I was confused about something related to quantum $1$ designs. Let us recap two facts we know about random circuit ensembles that form a $1$ design. $1$ design, for a quantum circuit over $n$ qubits, ...
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Quantum advantage with only Clifford gates (Gottesman Knill theorem)

Let's say I want to solve a computational task which input can be encoded in $n$ bits of information. The look for a quantum advantage is (usually) asking to find a quantum algorithm in which there ...
1 vote
1 answer
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How does a quantum computer execute a process by leveraging superposition?

I understand in plain terms superposition and entanglement, but I'm very unclear how either of these could work as a means to increase computation power. A helpful metaphor is that of the maze. A ...
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1 answer
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Random quantum circuits and general efficient POVM measurement

Let's consider a random quantum circuit $C$, applied to the $n$ qubit initial state $|0^{n}\rangle$, producing the state $|\psi\rangle$. Consider a general efficiently implementable $m$-outcome POVM ...
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How can one define contextuality within the circuit model?

It is in general believed that contextuality is one of the quantum resource that provides the quantum advantage. A context is usually defined in terms of a set of commuting observables. The quantum ...
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Average output state of random quantum circuits

Let $|\psi\rangle = C_1 |0^{n}\rangle$ be a quantum state, such that $C_1$ is a Haar random unitary circuit. Consider a density matrix $\rho$ as follows \begin{equation} \rho_1 = \mathbb{E}[|\psi\...
5 votes
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How powerful are boundedly many $T$-gates?

For a natural number $k$ (0 is a natural number), let $T_k$ be the collection of all languages that can be efficiently decided by quantum circuits consisting of Clifford gates and at most $k$ $T$-...
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If a hybrid classical+quantum algorithm can achieve quantum advantage, does this mean that the quantum part alone can?

Take for example a variational algorithm which has a classical optimization part and a quantum sampling part. In principle, the quantum part can be simulated by another classical computer given ...
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Why exactly are variational algorithms considered promising?

There is obviously a great deal of work happening at the moment on variational quantum algorithms. However, I'm struggling to understand why exactly are they considered promising? Looking through some ...
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Would quantum computers be more efficient at solving circular reference problems than classical computers?

A circular reference is when a certain value either refers to itself or a value refers to a value that refers to it. An example of a circular reference problem would be $x=f(x)$. One way to solve ...
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Spreading of entanglement with depth for Haar random states

Consider a Haar random quantum state of depth $d$. Consider any bipartition of this state. According to this paper (page $2$): Haar-random states on $n$ qudits are nearly maximally entangled across ...
7 votes
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Is there a practical architecture-independent benchmark suitable for adversarial proof of quantum supremacy?

Recent quantum supremacy claims rely, among other things, on extrapolation, which motivates the question in the title, where the word "adversarial" is added to exclude such extrapolation-...
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4 votes
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Spoofing XQUATH with the Feynman method

Consider the XQUATH conjecture for random quantum circuits, as mentioned here. (XQUATH, or Linear Cross-Entropy Quantum Threshold Assumption). There is no polynomial-time classical algorithm that ...
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Feynman method and polynomial time algorithm for XQUATH

Consider the Feynman algorithm for simulating quantum circuits, as given here. Consider the XQUATH conjecture for random quantum circuits from here, given by (XQUATH, or Linear Cross-Entropy Quantum ...
2 votes
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Relation between approximate counting and sampling

Consider the following statement of Stockmeyer counting theorem. Given as input a function $f:\{0, 1\}^{n} \rightarrow \{0, 1\}^{m}$ and $y \in \{0, 1\}^{m}$, there is a procedure that runs in ...
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When is a Quantum Computer Slower Than a Classical Computer?

Someone offhandedly mentioned to me that quantum computers are sometimes significantly (I guess they meant asymptotically) slower than classical computers. Unfortunately, I didn't get any arguments ...
2 votes
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Can I use Grover's algorithm on overlapping sets of qubits?

Let's say I have 3 qubits: $q_1,q_2,q_3$. I want to apply Grover's algorithm on q1,q2, such that q1,q2 $\neq$ 10 and do the same for q2,q3, so that q2,q3 $\neq$ 11. The final possible combinations of ...
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How are quantum computers more powerful than classical computers? [duplicate]

I feel the answer to this question is just out of reach - I "understand" the implication that a quantum computer uses all combinations of bits simultaneously compared to a classic computer, ...
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3 votes
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Quantum hardness of XQUATH conjecture

Consider the XQUATH conjectures, as defined here (https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.12085, Definition 1). (XQUATH, or Linear Cross-Entropy Quantum Threshold Assumption). There is no polynomial-time ...
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What is the main advantage of using the Variational Quantum Eigensolver over a classical algorithm?

What is the main advantage of using the Variational Quantum Eigensolver (quantum computing) over a classical algorithm? I know a key fact is the speed-up, but how is this speed-up quantised.
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Has any analogue quantum simulator showed quantum advantage yet?

Quantum advantage/supremacy was achieved by Google using a quantum computer and more recently by Pan Jianwei's group using photons. So I was wondering, has any analog quantum simulator showed quantum ...
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Is it possible to design a Quantum Computing Advantage to deploy an application on the web?

I need to understand the frontier and practical applications of quantum computing. Is it possible to design a Quantum Computing Advantage to deploy an application on the web, such as a browser, ...
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Generally speaking, are quantum speedups always due to parallelization of a given problem?

We know that quantum computers use the wave-like nature of quantum mechanics to perform interference. Sometimes we can use this interference to perform specific algorithms that will cause enough ...
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Quantum supremacy: shallow depth Haar random circuits and unitary designs

I had a confusion about shallow depth Haar random quantum circuits. In this paper, in Section B (related works), it is mentioned that Haar random quantum circuits form approximate $2$-designs only ...
3 votes
2 answers
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Q-means, QRAM and how it helps algorithmic speedup

I am trying to understand how QRAM will help improve algorithm performance. I am reading a paper on Q-means classification, but I have noticed that some other algorithms (Grovers) seem to have a ...
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Why does QAOA achieve quantum supremacy in an algorithmic sense?

In the paper Quantum Supremacy through the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm the authors claim (last sentence of page 15): "If [...] the QAOA outperforms all known classical algorithms ...