# Questions tagged [trace-distance]

In quantum mechanics, and especially quantum information and the study of open quantum systems, the trace distance T is a metric on the space of density matrices and gives a measure of the distinguishability between two states. It is the quantum generalization of the Kolmogorov distance for classical probability distributions. (Wikipedia)

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### A measure of entanglement created by a unitary operation

Let $U$ be a unitary matrix acting on a 3-qubit system. If there is no correlation among any pairs of the three qubits, the unitary operation can be represented as $U = U_1 \otimes U_2 \otimes U_3$, ...
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### Why is state discrimination possible to infidelity $\delta$ using $n=\Theta(1/\delta)$ states?

In (Haah et al. 2015), in the first section, the authors study the asymptotic behaviours of fidelity and trace distance between $\rho^{\otimes n}$ and $\sigma^{\otimes n}$ for some given pair of ...
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### Prove the triangle inequality for the trace norm: $\|M+N\|_1\le \|M\|_1+\|N\|_1$

I have been trying to show that $$||M+N|| \le ||M|| + ||N||$$ However, I seem to be missing some fundamental property of either how the trace or square root acts on these sums of matrices, or how the ...
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### Game formulation of Quantum GAN

Quantum Generative Adversarial Network (QuGAN) generates a desired quantum state via a minimax game between generator and discriminator (equivalently, it's optimizing a trace distance between ...
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### Closeness of unitary dilations of CPTP maps

Let $\Phi_1,\Phi_2 \colon S(\mathcal{H}) \to S(\mathcal{H})$ be CPTP maps on the same Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$ which are $\varepsilon$-close in diamond norm, and let $U_1,U_2$ be respective unitary ...
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### Does ${\rm tr}(\Pi_z\rho\Pi_z)\le p$ imply $\cal E(\rho)$ and $\cal E(\Pi_{-z}\rho\Pi_{-z})$ are close in trace distance?

Suppose I have a quantum operation $\mathcal{E}$ and a state $\rho$ such that: $$\operatorname{tr}(\Pi_z \rho \Pi_z) \le p$$ for some probability $p$ and some projection $\Pi_z$ onto some subspace ...
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### How to prove that $\frac{| x_0 \rangle + | x_1 \rangle}{\sqrt{2}}$ hides one of $x_0$ or $x_1$?

I create a quantum state $| \psi \rangle = \frac{| x_0 \rangle + | x_1 \rangle}{\sqrt{2}}$ for a randomly chosen $x_0,x_1$ of 50 bits. I give this quantum state $|\psi \rangle$ to you and you return ...
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### Constructing a state with constraints on reduced states

Suppose $\rho'_{AB} \approx_\varepsilon \rho_{AB}$ in trace distance. Is there an explicit construction of some state $\tilde{\rho}_{AB}$ using $\rho'_{AB}, \rho'_A, \rho'_B, \rho_A$ and $\rho_B$ (but ...
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### Properties of composition of isometry and a perturbed adjoint

Suppose $\vert\Phi\rangle_{AR} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{|D|}}\sum_{i\in D} \vert ii\rangle_{AR}$ is the maximally entangled state. Let $V_{A\rightarrow BE}$ and $\tilde{V}_{A\rightarrow BE}$ be two isometries ...
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### Trace distance of two classical-quantum state with hashing

Let's say I have a classical-quantum(cq) state $\rho_{XE}$, where the classical part $(X)$ is orthogonal. It's trace distance from another uniform density operator is defined to be:  \frac{1}{2}||\...
Suppose $A\in L(X,Y)$. $||\cdot||$ denotes spectral norm and denotes the largest singular value of a matrix, i.e. the largest eigenvalue of $\sqrt{A^*A}$. $||\cdot||_{tr}$ denotes trace norm. We have ...
Let's say I have a pair of states among three parties Alice(A), Bob(B) and Eve(E), $\rho_{ABE}$ and $\rho_{UUE}$ where the first two parties hold uniform values U.} I know that the trace distance ...