Questions tagged [trace-distance]

In quantum mechanics, and especially quantum information and the study of open quantum systems, the trace distance T is a metric on the space of density matrices and gives a measure of the distinguishability between two states. It is the quantum generalization of the Kolmogorov distance for classical probability distributions. (Wikipedia)

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4
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1answer
43 views

Why do probablity distribution with orthogonal suppor have maximal Kolmogorov distance?

Can anyone explain why the $l_1$ distance has the property that probability distributions $P,Q$ with orthogonal support (meaning that the product $p_iq_i$ vanishes for each value of $i$) are at a ...
4
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2answers
119 views

Is the trace distance between multipartite states invariant under permutations?

Consider two multipartite states $\rho_{A_1A_2..A_L}$ and $\sigma_{A_1A_2..A_L}$ in $\mathcal{H}_{A_1} \otimes\mathcal{H}_{A_2} \otimes...\mathcal{H}_{A_L} $. For an arbitrary permutation $\pi$ over $\...
3
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1answer
53 views

How can we upper bound the norm of a partial trace?

Suppose we have the normalised states $|\phi_{1}\rangle,|\phi_{2}\rangle \in A \otimes B$ where $A$ and $B$ are $d$-dimensional complex vector spaces. Suppose $|\langle\phi_{2}|\phi_{1}\rangle| < ...
5
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1answer
145 views

Closeness of purifications of states

Uhlmann's theorem states that if two states $\rho_A, \sigma_A$ satisfy $F(\rho_A, \sigma_A)\geq 1 - \varepsilon$, then there for any purification $\Psi_{AR}$ of $\rho_A$, one can find a purification $\...
2
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2answers
82 views

Properties of composition of isometry and a perturbed adjoint

Suppose $\vert\Phi\rangle_{AR} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{|D|}}\sum_{i\in D} \vert ii\rangle_{AR}$ is the maximally entangled state. Let $V_{A\rightarrow BE}$ and $\tilde{V}_{A\rightarrow BE}$ be two isometries ...
1
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1answer
49 views

Trace distance of two classical-quantum state with hashing

Let's say I have a classical-quantum(cq) state $\rho_{XE}$, where the classical part $(X)$ is orthogonal. It's trace distance from another uniform density operator is defined to be: $$ \frac{1}{2}||\...
3
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2answers
127 views

Prove that the trace norm is dual to the spectral norm

Suppose $A\in L(X,Y)$. $||\cdot||$ denotes spectral norm and denotes the largest singular value of a matrix, i.e. the largest eigenvalue of $\sqrt{A^*A}$. $||\cdot||_{tr}$ denotes trace norm. We have ...
1
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1answer
42 views

Trace distance bound after partial trace

Let's say I have a pair of states among three parties Alice(A), Bob(B) and Eve(E), $\rho_{ABE}$ and $\rho_{UUE}$ where the first two parties hold uniform values U.} I know that the trace distance ...
3
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1answer
89 views

Quantum marginal problem - constructing a global state from reduced states

Consider a bipartite state $\rho_{AB}$ with reduced states $\rho_A = \text{Tr}_B(\rho_{AB})$ and $\rho_B = \text{Tr}_A(\rho_{AB})$. Suppose one obtains states $\rho'_{A}$ and $\rho'_{B}$ such that $\|\...
3
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1answer
57 views

How do I prove that $\newcommand{\tr}{\operatorname{Tr}}\tr(A \sqrt{B} A \sqrt{B}) = \tr\Big[\Big(\sqrt{\sqrt{B}} A \sqrt{\sqrt{B}}\Big)^2\Big]$?

Let's say I have 2 density operators $A$ and $B$. Now, here is what I am trying to calculate: $$\newcommand{\tr}{\operatorname{trace}} \tr(A \sqrt{B} A \sqrt{B}). $$ I saw that this trace can be ...
1
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1answer
93 views

Relationship between trace distance and total variation distance

Consider two quantum states $\rho$ and $\sigma$ and the probability distributions induced by measuring both of them in the standard basis. Let’s call the probability distributions $p_{\rho}$ and $p_{\...
1
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2answers
76 views

Relation between trace distance and inner product between pure states

Let $|\phi\rangle,|\psi\rangle$ be two state vectors, and let $d=\frac{1}{2}\mathrm{Tr}(\sqrt{(|\phi\rangle\langle\phi|-|\psi\rangle\langle\psi|)^2})$ be their trace distance. Then it will always hold ...
1
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1answer
40 views

Is the restriction of a strictly contractive channel (SCC) to a subspace necessarily still SCC? (impossibility of perfect QEC for SCCs)

This paper shows the impossibility of perfect error correction for strictly contractive quantum channels, i.e., for channels such that $||\mathcal{E}(\rho)-\mathcal{E}(\sigma) ||\leq k ||\rho-\sigma||$...
1
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1answer
109 views

Can the fidelity $F(\rho,\sigma)$ be computed knowing only $\rho - \sigma$?

The motivation for this question comes from trace distance. For any two states $\rho, \sigma$, the trace distance $T(\rho, \sigma)$ is given by $$T(\rho, \sigma) = |\rho - \sigma|_1,$$ where $|\cdot|...
3
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1answer
115 views

Saturating the Fuchs-van de Graaf inequality

It is well-known that one side of the Fuchs-van de Graaf inequality is saturated for pure states, i.e. $F(\rho,\sigma)^2 = 1-d(\rho,\sigma)^2$ when $\rho$ and $\sigma$ are pure (here we are using the ...
2
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2answers
55 views

What can be said about the closeness of two states if the difference of their fidelity measured with respect to a fixed state is close to 0?

Suppose I have two states $\rho$ and $\sigma$. We are given that, $$Tr((\rho - \sigma)|\psi\rangle\langle\psi|) \geq \epsilon$$ where $|\psi\rangle$ is a fixed state and $\epsilon \rightarrow 0$, ...
3
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1answer
36 views

Does the trace distance between marginals bound the distance between the overall states?

If the quantum states of the subsystems of two systems are close (for example: in terms of trace distance), are the states of the larger systems also close, i.e., if $$ ||\rho_A - \rho_{A^\prime}||\...
5
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2answers
54 views

Prove that for one-qubit unitaries $\text{Tr}|U-V|=2\max_\psi\|(U-V)|\psi\rangle\|$

Given two 1-qubit rotations $U=R_n (\theta)$ and $V=R_m(\phi)$ with $n$ and $m$ vectors defining a rotation and $\theta, \phi$ angles, define $D(U,V)=Tr(|U-V|)$ where $|U-V|=\sqrt{(U-V)^\dagger (U-V)}$...
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2answers
97 views

Prove that $\operatorname{Tr}_B(O_A M)=O_A\operatorname{Tr}_B(M)$

Can someone help me with the following question? Let $M$ be a general operator on the composite system $\mathcal{H}_A\otimes \mathcal{H}_B$ and let $O_A$ be an operator on $\mathcal{H}_A$. Using ...
4
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1answer
104 views

Is the quantum state fidelity defined as $F(\rho, \sigma)=\text{tr}\sqrt{\rho^{1/2}\sigma\rho^{1/2}}$ or its square?

I have seen two different definition of Fidelity in different sources. For example, Nielsen & Chuang QCQI, 10th edition, page 409 defines Fidelity like the following: $$ F(\rho, \sigma) := \...
2
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1answer
71 views

Continuity bounds on $D_{\max}(\rho_{AB}\|\rho_A\otimes\rho_B)$

The max-relative entropy between two states is defined as $$D_{\max }(\rho \| \sigma):=\log \min \{\lambda: \rho \leq \lambda \sigma\},$$ where $\rho\leq \sigma$ should be read as $\sigma - \rho$ is ...
2
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1answer
62 views

It two unitaries are delta apart in trace norm, then what is the trace norm of outputs states when the same input state is applied to two unitaries?

Suppose we are given two unitary matrices $U$ and $V$, with the following guarantee, $$||U - V||_1 \geqslant \delta$$ for some $\delta \geqslant 0$. We apply an input density state $\rho$ ...
7
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1answer
250 views

Does the trace distance have a geometrical interpretation?

Consider the trace distance between two quantum states $\rho,\sigma$, defined via $$D(\rho,\sigma)=\frac12\operatorname{Tr}|\rho-\sigma|,$$ where $|A|\equiv\sqrt{A^\dagger A}$. When $\rho$ and $\...
6
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2answers
140 views

Prove that $\|p^{\otimes n} - q^{\otimes n}\| \leq n \|p-q\|$ for density operators $p,q$

I've been trying to figure this out for a while and I'm totally lost. My goal is to show that for two density operators $p$, $q$, that $$||p^{\otimes n} - q^{\otimes n}|| \leq n ||p-q||$$ So far ...
6
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1answer
166 views

Is the diamond norm subadditive under composition?

The diamond norm distance between two operations is the maximum trace distance between their outputs for any input (including inputs entangled with qubits not being operated on). Is it the case that ...
9
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2answers
922 views

What is intuition for the trace distance between quantum states?

Given two mixed states $\rho$ and $\sigma$, the trace distance between the states is defined by $\sum_{i=1}^n |\lambda_i|$, where $\lambda_i$'s are eigenvalues of $\rho - \sigma$. I know the ...
3
votes
1answer
131 views

Trace distance of two classical-quantum states

I have these two classical-quantum states: $$\rho = \sum_{a} \lvert a\rangle \langle a\lvert \otimes q^a \\ \mu = \sum_{a} \lvert a\rangle \langle a\lvert \otimes r^a $$ Where $a$ are the classical ...