Questions tagged [hadamard]

Single qubit Hadamard gate transforms standard basis states (zero and one states) to their superpositions (plus and minus states)

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0
votes
1answer
41 views

A CNOT between two Hadamard gates: why does the CNOT changed the output of the second Hadamard gate?

Applying the Hadamard gate twice in a row, it restores the original input: https://algassert.com/quirk#circuit={%22cols%22:[[%22H%22],[%22H%22]]} However, if a CNOT control is added between the two ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

How does the given state collapse to the two given possibilities after fourier sampling?

I'm working through the exercises for Professor Vazirani's course on QM & QC, and I don't understand the given solution to one of the problems (assignment 4, problem 10.a). I think I'm missing ...
3
votes
1answer
36 views

Definitions of $D_y$ gate in Hamiltonian simulation: are they the same?

I'm reading a Hamiltonian simulation example proposed in this paper. From their notation, the operator $D_y$ (sometimes it's called $H_y$) serves the function to diagonalize the Pauli matrix $\sigma_y(...
3
votes
2answers
65 views

Transforming $|100\rangle$ state into $|000\rangle + |111\rangle$ state using only Hadamard and CNOT gates

Hi, How to convert $|100\rangle$ 3-qubit quantum state into $\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(|000\rangle + |111\rangle)$ state using only Hadamard and CNOT gates? Also, is output state an entangled one?
3
votes
3answers
71 views

How are the IBM's and Google's Hadamard gates fabricated and operated?

There are thousands of articles, books and web sites describing the Hadamard Gate from a theoretical point of view. But I haven't been able to find any photo about any real implementeation of a ...
2
votes
2answers
108 views

Transforming $|01 \rangle + |10 \rangle - |11 \rangle \to |01 \rangle - |10 \rangle + |11 \rangle$

How to convert from current state: $$|\psi \rangle =\dfrac{ |01 \rangle + |10 \rangle - |11 \rangle}{\sqrt{3}}$$ into a target state $$|\phi \rangle = \dfrac{|01 \rangle - |10 \rangle + |11 \rangle}{\...
0
votes
3answers
68 views

Why 2 $H$ gates in series create a probability of 100% for one value of the qubit and 0% of the second value of the qubit?

Why 2 $H$ gates in series create a probability of 100% for one value of the qubit and 0% of the second value of the qubit since an $H$ gate acts like a superposition generator?
3
votes
1answer
82 views

Confused about the application of Hadamard gate to uncorrelated qubits [duplicate]

Why does applying the following circuit on a $00$ state produce $|0\rangle \otimes |+\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(|00\rangle + |01\rangle)$. Shouldn't it produce $ |+\rangle \otimes |0\rangle = \...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Is there a clear boundary between quantum coupling and quantum entanglement?

I have a few questions in understanding the difference between coupling and entanglement in quantum systems: Is there a clear boundary between quantum coupling and quantum entanglement? If two quantum ...
1
vote
2answers
88 views

How do I apply the Hadamard gate to one qubit in a two-qubit pure state?

So in lectures I see lots of these: And somehow I intuitively understand it (at least for the 1 qubit case), but I don't understand the math – especially for 2 qubits.
1
vote
3answers
60 views

How do I apply a Hadamard gate on a given qubit, in matrix formalism?

Hadamard gate matrix is: $$\frac{1}{\sqrt2}\begin{bmatrix}1 & 1 \\ 1 & -1\end{bmatrix}$$ The matrix for $|0\rangle$ is: $$\begin{bmatrix}1 \\ 0\end{bmatrix}$$ I am unable to understand, how ...
3
votes
1answer
314 views

How to translate the Hadamard gate matrix into Dirac notation?

Hadamard gate matrix is: $$\frac{1}{\sqrt 2}\begin{bmatrix}1 && 1 \\ 1 && -1\end{bmatrix}$$ The Dirac notation for it is: $$\frac{|0\rangle+|1\rangle}{\sqrt 2}\langle0|+\frac{|0\...
1
vote
2answers
52 views

Calculation of the system states and the individual wire states in a quantum circuit

I am bit confused with calculating the overall state of a quantum gate and the individual wire states. For example, lets say there are two Qubits, where Q1 is in $\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(\vert 0\rangle + \...
0
votes
2answers
71 views

Generate a random bit sequence of 512 bits [duplicate]

How can I generate a random bit sequence of 512 bits on IBM Q experience using 3 or 5 qubits? Putting a hadammard gate and measuring would only give me smaller bit sequence due to limitation in number ...
0
votes
1answer
92 views

What is the matrix representation of the Hadamard gate in the computational basis?

I read about Hadamard gate H and found it's matrix representation as follows: $$H_1=\frac{1}{\sqrt 2}\begin{pmatrix}1 & 1 \\1 & -1\end{pmatrix}$$ I wanted to know what will be the matrix ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Hadamard gate for three qubits; inconsistency between IBM and Matlab

I am trying to build a large and quite complex three qubit quantum circuit on IBMs quantum computer. I have a specific unitary which I am trying to implement and I am building a circuit following the ...
0
votes
1answer
98 views

What is the output of applying the Hadamard matrix to $\sum_{y\in\{0,1\}^n} (-1)^{xy}|y\rangle$?

If, for some $x$, I have the $n$-qubit state $$\sum_{y\in\{0,1\}^n} (-1)^{xy}|y\rangle,$$ and I would like to apply to that the $n$-qubit Hadamard transform, with the aim of calculating the final ...
4
votes
2answers
121 views

Hadamard Test to calculate imaginary part

I am trying to understand the Hadamard Test by finding the average value of $U_1$, which is a diagonal matrix with $1$ everywhere except on the first element. I performed the regular Hadamard Test as ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Hadamard direct mapping of input to output in $\theta$ and $\varphi$ form

I was wondering what would be an equation for Hadamard operation for a single qubit, given the input as the current $\theta$ (0 to $+\pi/2$) and $\varphi$ ($-\pi$ to $+\pi$) and output expected in $\...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

What are the I, X, Z gates in quantum gates? [closed]

Can someone please explan how the $\rm I$, $\rm X$ and $\rm Z$ gates work? If $\rm{I = X^2 = Z^2}$, can you explain why this is the case or why it wouldn't work?
0
votes
1answer
63 views

How to undo an operation in qiskit on jupyter notebook?

I am not able to undo an operation. For example, I want a single Hadamard gate on a single qubit but by mistake two Hadamard gate added. Now I want to remove one of them without interrupting kernel. ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Prove that QFT and Walsh-Hadamard gates give the same output when acting on $\lvert x\rangle\lvert 0\rangle$ [duplicate]

I know that $QFT_n|0\rangle$ is equivalent to $H_n|0\rangle$ (mathematical proof). And it is also easy to prove that $QFT_1$ is equivalent to $H_1$ (applied to one QuBit). From looking at the circuit ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

N-Qubit Hadamard vs Quantum Fourier Transform

Both Simon's algorithm and the algorithm for period finding begin by placing qubits in the equal superposition state, but Simon's algorithm uses the n-qubit Hadamard $H^{\otimes n}$ while the period ...
2
votes
2answers
107 views

Why do we divide by $\sqrt2$ in the qubit states $\lvert\pm\rangle=\frac{1}{\sqrt2}(\lvert0\rangle\pm\lvert1\rangle)$?

I have a very basic question. I have found qubits are represented as complex vectors. I get it totally. I understand bracket notation and vector\matrix algebra. However, I cannot move further from ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Randomness using simple parallel Hadamard circuit

I've recently tried to build a Random generator using 5 hadamard gates (shown as U2 below) measured to 5 classical bits in parallel as shown in the circuit image. I've executed this circuit for 8192 ...
2
votes
0answers
81 views

Hadamard Overlap Test

I am trying to understand a test called Hadamard Overlap Test, which consists of a destructive swap test (section IV of swap test and Hong-Ou-Mandel effect are equivalent) right after a Hadamard test. ...
1
vote
2answers
433 views

Is there a gate that puts a qubit into superposition with a not so purely probabalistic (50 50) outcome?

I know that a Hadamard states is a purely probabalistic one; e.g. $$H\vert 0\rangle=a\vert 0\rangle+b\vert 1\rangle$$ where $a^2=0.5$ and $b^2=0.5$. Are there any states in which the ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Hadamard gate with two inputs in the circuit for the BB84 protocol?

I am reading the book "Quantum Computing verstehen" by Matthias Homeister. At the moment i'm having a look at the BB84 protocol (which is described in kind of an abstract way). In this chapter a ...
1
vote
1answer
17 views

How can I make qiskit output raw data?

I am new to quantum computing, and I want to make a program to output 0 or 1 randomly by Hadamard gate, and use that information to make a GUI interface. For example, a coin flip program that output "...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Probabilities does not sum up to 1 in simple circuit

I have an issue, perhaps with normalization with the following state. For $\alpha^2 + \beta^2 =1 $, the probabilities in this state does not sum up to 1. $$|\psi\rangle := \frac{1}{2}\left[\alpha\...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

What happens if $|\psi\rangle$ = $|0\rangle$ or $|\psi\rangle$ = $|1\rangle$ is passed as an input to two Hadamard gates in sequence?

I'm a computer science student and soon I will have a math exam. I'm really struggling with this preparation question. Also, includes the following: How does this demonstrate that we need the “ket” ...
3
votes
1answer
54 views

$H = e^{i\pi/4} \sqrt{iNOT}$?

In the paper Valley qubit in Gated MoS$_2$ monolayer quantum dot, a description of how a $NOT$ gate would be performed on a qubit in the described device is given. The authors say that in the ...
1
vote
1answer
180 views

Simple algebraic explanation for normalizing states

I'm wondering how a set of three 0-state qubits, each prepared identically, like so: When considered together, may produce the fraction: along with their combined states. This is the entire circuit....
3
votes
2answers
622 views

How should I understand the change of qubit's basis as a rotation?

I have a little difficulty with understanding. How do I properly visualize the change of qubit's basis as a rotation? Let's say that we have classical basis vectors, $|0\rangle$ and $|1\rangle$. Now, ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

Hadamard/Phase/Hadamard and Inversion about the Mean

I understand the matrix multiplication behind Grover's algorithm, but I'd like to get an intuitive grasp on why sequence of gates Hadamard-Phase-Hadamard does inversion about the mean. Can anyone help?...
1
vote
2answers
216 views

How to construct a IBM Quantum Experience circuit for the following state transformation?

Please help me in building IBM Quantum Experience circuit for: $$ M|0\rangle = \frac{1}{2}(|0\rangle+|1\rangle+|2\rangle+|3\rangle) $$ Edit: Is it possible to make a circuit for a general ...
3
votes
1answer
136 views

Generate the state $\frac{-|0\rangle + |1\rangle}{\sqrt{2}}$ with qiskit: problem with Pauli-Z behavior

I want to construct the following state of a qubit using a quantum circuit: $\frac{-|0\rangle + |1\rangle}{\sqrt{2}}$ When I use the following qiskit code in Python: ...
6
votes
2answers
575 views

Why can the QFT be replaced by Hadamard gates?

I'm studying Shor's Algorithm. In the book, author explains QFT can be replaced by Hadamard gates? Why this process is possible?? Thank you everybody. This is QPE. I attach part of book!!
1
vote
1answer
129 views

What are the $|+\rangle$ and $|-\rangle$ states?

In the Gates Glossary of IBM Quantum Experience it states H gate The H or Hadamard gate rotates the states |0⟩ and |1⟩ to |+⟩ and |−⟩, respectively. It is useful for making superpositions. ...
3
votes
1answer
170 views

Why is implementation of controlled Hadamard on IBM Q so complex?

With reference to question how to implement CCH gate I easily realized that CH gate can be implemented with $\mathrm{Ry}$ gates and $\mathrm{CNOT}$ followingly: Note $\theta = \frac{\pi}{4}$ for ...
-1
votes
1answer
292 views

Why is a Hadamard gate unitary?

The Hadamard gate is a unitary gate, but how does the matrix times its own conjugate transpose actually result in the $I$ matrix? I am currently looking at it as a scalar, 0.707..., multiplied by the ...
4
votes
2answers
82 views

Why do multi-bit hadamards expands to what they do?

I'm a Computer Scientist undergrad student studying for an exam in Quantum computing. In all of the algorithms I have been studying (Deutsch–Jozsa, Simons, Shors, Grovers) I constantly see multi-qubit ...
-2
votes
2answers
155 views

Is quantum superposition state a truth or an assumption?

Please, be patient with my question I already read that there is a heuristic that makes superposition a fact of reality. In addition, this superposition, when observed, it has a state of 0 or 1. ...
3
votes
2answers
98 views

What is the matrix representation for $n$-qubit gates?

Let's say I have more than one qbits $|0\rangle|1\rangle$ and I want to perform a $H$ on both of them. I know the matrix representation for the Hadamard on a single qbit is $$\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\begin{...
8
votes
4answers
282 views

How do I prove that the Hadamard satisfies $H\equiv e^{i\pi H/2}$?

How can I demonstrate on the exponential part equality of the Hadamard matrix: $$H=\frac{X+Z}{\sqrt2}\equiv\exp\left(i\frac{\pi}{2}\frac{X+Z}{\sqrt2}\right).$$ In general, how can I demonstrate on: $\...
7
votes
2answers
428 views

Could the Hadamard gate have been constructed differently with similar characteristics?

Say we had a Hadamard-like gate with the -1 in the first entry instead of the last. Let's call it $H^1$. $$H = \begin{bmatrix}1&1\\1&-1\end{bmatrix}$$ $$H^1 = \begin{bmatrix}-1&1\\1&...
1
vote
3answers
177 views

Can everything in QM be described with degrees instead of matrices and vectors?

I found this explanation. "The Hadamard gate can also be expressed as a 90º rotation around the Y-axis, followed by a 180º rotation around the X-axis. So $H=XY^{1/2}H = X Y^{1/2}H=XY^{1/2}$." Can ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Analysis of the second Hadamard in the Detusch-Josza Algorithm

Consider the Deutsch-Josza, algorithm, which first initializes the state $|0 \rangle^{\otimes n} | 1 \rangle$, creates a superposition using the the Hadamard gate and the $U_f$ to get into the state: $...
1
vote
2answers
98 views

Prove by induction $H^{\otimes n} \left| 0 \right>^{\otimes n} = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2^n}} \sum_{i=0}^{2^n -1} \left| i \right>$

Let H be the Hadamard operator. $$ H = (\left| 0 \right> \left< 0 \right| + \left| 0 \right> \left< 1 \right| + \left| 1 \right> \left< 0 \right| -\left| 1 \right> \left< 1 \...
3
votes
3answers
626 views

How do 2 Hadamard gates act on a single qubit?

When I perform $2$ Hadamard $H$ gates on a single qubit, why is the probability of getting $0$ as the outcome 100%? Why is it not 50% 0 and 50% 1 instead? Why is the second $H$ gate not putting the ...