Long-range entanglement is characterized by topological order (some kinds of global entanglement properties), and the "modern" definition of topological order is the ground state of the system cannot be prepared by a constant-depth circuit from a product state, instead of ground states dependency and boundary excitations in traditional. Essentially, a quantum state which can be prepared by a constant-depth circuit is called trivial state.
On the other hand, quantum states with long-range entanglement are "robust". One of the most famous corollaries of quantum PCP conjecture which proposed by Matt Hastings is the No Low-energy Trivial States conjecture, and the weaker case proved by Eldar and Harrow two years ago (i.e. NLETS theorem: https://arxiv.org/abs/1510.02082). Intuitively, the probability of a series of the random errors are exactly some log-depth quantum circuit are very small, so it makes sense that the entanglement here is "robust".
It seems that this phenomenon is some kinds of similar to topological quantum computation. Topological quantum computation is robust for any local error since the quantum gate here is implemented by braiding operators which is connected to some global topological properties. However, it needs to point that "robust entanglement" in the NLTS conjecture setting only involved the amount of entanglement, so the quantum state itself maybe changed -- it does not deduce a quantum error-correction code from non-trivial states automatically.
Definitely, long-range entanglement is related to homological quantum error-correction codes, such as the Toric code (it seems that it is related to abelian anyons). However, my question is that are there some connections between long-range entanglement (or "robust entanglement" in the NLTS conjecture setting) and topological quantum computation? Perhaps there exists some conditions regarding when the correspondent Hamiltonian can deduce a quantum error-correction code.