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What does quantum teleportation mean? Is it something that will allow us to send information faster than the light? Can we teleport a human with it?

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In conclusion, NO and NO, respectively.

Quantum teleportation does not mean instantaneous disappearance and reappearance of information at another spatial point. Quantum teleportation in plain English means moving a quantum state from one place to another using quantum operations and quantum measurement, which are connected by classical as well as quantum channels or both. This does not exceed the speed of light in any sense and does not violate the theory of special relativity. There is no faster than light (FTL) communication in the basic Teleportation protocol because it is restricted by the speed of light as it uses an ordinary classical channel as a necessary requirement to attain its perfection in probability.

Teleporting a human is a very subjective question today. Because it is not a quantum object to be described by a quantum state. A human is a macroscopic object which is completely classical. To this date, the biggest size of objects that are teleported (to about $2\ \mathrm{km}$ range) is the size of buckyballs or similar objects (this means teleporting their quantum states - in the sense of information). Teleporting anything classical would be quite metaphysical at this point, it would also bring the questions of consciousness and other hypotheses into the framework which are not yet modeled or accepted by the science community. One way may be to scramble - teleport - re-assemble such objects, but do they retain their macroscopic properties then? It is a question which is more philosophical to this point.

Check out some of these links to catch up with the latest breakthrough in quantum teleportation regarding range, loop-holes, security, etc:

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    $\begingroup$ the "at present day" is misleading here. As far as quantum mechanics is concerned, the answer is a straight no. $\endgroup$ – glS Feb 16 at 11:41
  • $\begingroup$ That was probably intended to refer to the "move a human" part. $\endgroup$ – Craig Gidney Feb 16 at 18:20
  • $\begingroup$ @gIS, thanks for pointing out, this is surely misleading, I have edited now. $\endgroup$ – Siddhant Singh Feb 16 at 18:50

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