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Preliminary I would like to rewrite the equation that you have in a slightly different manner. Since a density matrix can be written as a matrix, we can also write it down as a linear combination of elements from a basis for the space of density matrices. We can use essentially any basis to do this, but some are preferred: most notably, the Pauli basis. For ...


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As indicated by Danylo in his anwser, eq. (32) in arXiv: 1103.2030 presents the sixteen vectors ("ignoring overall phases and normalisation") \begin{equation} \left( \begin{array}{cccc} x & 1 & 1 & 1 \\ x & 1 & -1 & -1 \\ x & -1 & 1 & -1 \\ x & -1 & -1 & 1 \\ i & x & 1 & -i \\ i & x & -...


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You can find it here Symmetric Informationally Complete Quantum Measurements or here SIC-POVMs: A new computer study, in the appendix B. Update Given a single fiducial vector $v = (a_1,a_2,a_3,a_4)^T \in \mathbb{C}^4$ it's pretty easy to write down all SIC-POVM vectors. They are just $C^kS^lv$ for $k,l \in \{0..3\}$, where $C$ and $S$ are clock and shift ...


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The question presupposes a misconception that the vector form of a state $|\psi\rangle$ exists independently of its density operator form $|\psi\rangle\langle\psi|$, which is often described as secondary. In reality, the density operator of a state is all that truly exists --- and even then, it only exists as statistical information. In fact, you can ...


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There isn't. A density matrix encodes all the knowledge available about a state, therefore if two states are described by the same density matrix, they are indistinguishable. Ket vectors differing by only a global phase have always the same density matrix, and represent the same physical state.


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