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Fidelity is a single-number measure of how good a gate is. Since there are many ways that a gate can go wrong, there are multiple ways that the fidelity can be defined. The exact answer to your question will therefore depend on which kind of fidelity you want. Any measure of fidelity will typically involve comparing the gate that you wanted to the channel ...


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The question presupposes a misconception that the vector form of a state $|\psi\rangle$ exists independently of its density operator form $|\psi\rangle\langle\psi|$, which is often described as secondary. In reality, the density operator of a state is all that truly exists --- and even then, it only exists as statistical information. In fact, you can ...


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The mutual information can be written in terms of the relative entropy, please see Nielsen and Chuang (the entropy Venn diagram figure 11.2). I am writing the equation in the question's notation: $$I(\rho^{AB}) = S(\rho^{AB}|\rho^{A} \otimes \rho^{B})$$ The relative entropy can be estimated without full tomography. The procedure is described in Bengtsson ...


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Preliminary I would like to rewrite the equation that you have in a slightly different manner. Since a density matrix can be written as a matrix, we can also write it down as a linear combination of elements from a basis for the space of density matrices. We can use essentially any basis to do this, but some are preferred: most notably, the Pauli basis. For ...


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As indicated by Danylo in his anwser, eq. (32) in arXiv: 1103.2030 presents the sixteen vectors ("ignoring overall phases and normalisation") \begin{equation} \left( \begin{array}{cccc} x & 1 & 1 & 1 \\ x & 1 & -1 & -1 \\ x & -1 & 1 & -1 \\ x & -1 & -1 & 1 \\ i & x & 1 & -i \\ i & x & -...


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You can find it here Symmetric Informationally Complete Quantum Measurements or here SIC-POVMs: A new computer study, in the appendix B. Update Given a single fiducial vector $v = (a_1,a_2,a_3,a_4)^T \in \mathbb{C}^4$ it's pretty easy to write down all SIC-POVM vectors. They are just $C^kS^lv$ for $k,l \in \{0..3\}$, where $C$ and $S$ are clock and shift ...


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There isn't. A density matrix encodes all the knowledge available about a state, therefore if two states are described by the same density matrix, they are indistinguishable. Ket vectors differing by only a global phase have always the same density matrix, and represent the same physical state.


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Quick answer: You will not be able to fully recover $x$. Explanations: By design, the HHL algorithm stores $x$ in the amplitudes of a quantum state. Because of how quantum mechanics works, the vector representing the quantum state (i.e. containing all the amplitudes of the quantum state) needs to be of unit-norm (according to the Euclidean norm). Because ...


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In principle, Bob here just has to guess the $2\times 2$ matrix $\sigma$. If he starts with any parametric state $\sigma(\alpha,\beta)$ with $\alpha,\beta\in\mathbb{C}$ and measures the outcome Tr$(M\sigma)$ with the post measurement state $\sigma '=M\rho M^\dagger/\text{Tr}(M\rho)$, he receives a number and he has to tune $\alpha,\beta$ to come close to ...


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