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Quantum teleportation has been suggested to be possible to occur in photosynthetic reaction centers. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03166259 And it could in principle be occuring all the time through photochemistry in biology. Though to no real purpose, however, a related purposeful effect is the avian compass which(is hypothesized) to operate through quantum ...


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If you are interested only in the measurements of the system that comprises only 2nd and 3rd qubits, then you could compute the reduced density matrix $\rho_{23}$ on those qubits from the total density matrix $\rho_{1234}=|\psi\rangle \langle\psi|$, i.e. $$ \rho_{23} = \text{Tr}_{14}(\rho_{1234}) $$ Density matrix carry all information that is need to ...


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Judging from your computations, the Bell states are $$|B_{00}\rangle = |\Phi^+\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(|00\rangle + |11\rangle)$$ $$|B_{10}\rangle = |\Phi^-\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(|00\rangle - |11\rangle)$$ $$|B_{01}\rangle = |\Psi^+\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(|01\rangle + |10\rangle)$$ $$|B_{11}\rangle = |\Psi^-\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(|01\...


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