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When non-computational states are unintentionally populated, this is called leakage, and it is one of the leading sources of error in transmon qubits. Originally, the transmon emerged from an earlier design called the Cooper-pair box, which suffered from charge noise. By adding a large shunt capacitor, the sensitivity of the device to charge noise was ...


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First note that your $P(\theta)$ and $R_z(\theta)$ gates are the same up to a global phase, so you will not be able to distinguish them. Now, according to qiskit.pulse.ShiftPhase documentation: The qubit phase is tracked in software, enabling instantaneous, nearly error-free Z-rotations by using a ShiftPhase to update the frame tracking the qubit state. So ...


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