# Tag Info

## Hot answers tagged quantum-operation

### If all quantum gates must be unitary, what about measurement?

Unitary operations are only a special case of quantum operations, which are linear, completely positive maps ("channels") that map density operators to density operators. This becomes obvious in the ...
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### Significance of The Church of the Higher Hilbert space

The church of the larger (or higher, or greater) Hilbert space is just a trick that some people like (myself included) for rewriting some operations. The most general operations that you can write ...
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### How does the vectorization map relate to the Choi and Kraus representations of a channel?

One way to understand the relationship between the Choi representation of a channel and its possible Kraus representations is to use the vectorization map. Suppose that we have two finite-dimensional ...
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### Twirling Quantum Channels: Pauli and Clifford Twirling

Definitions Denoting the Haar measure of some function $f\left(x\right)$ over $d$-dimensional unitaries as $\int_{\mathrm U\left(d\right)}f\left(x\right)d\mu\left(x\right)$, twirling some arbitrary ...
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### If all quantum gates must be unitary, what about measurement?

Short Answer Quantum operations do not need to be unitary. In fact, many quantum algorithms and protocols make use of non-unitarity. Long Answer Measurements are arguably the most obvious example of ...
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### If all quantum gates must be unitary, what about measurement?

At risk of going off-topic from quantum computing and into physics, I'll answer what I think is a relevant subquestion of this topic, and use it to inform the discussion of unitary gates in quantum ...
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### What is the "complementary map" of a channel with given Kraus decomposition?

Let's start by finding a complementary channel for any channel given by a Kraus representation $$\Phi(X) = \sum_{k=1}^n A_k X A_k^{\dagger}.$$ To make the necessary equations clear, let us assume ...
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### Proof of an Holevo information inequality for a classical-classical-quantum channel

It appears that the statement is not true in general. Suppose $X = Y = \{0,1\}$, $\mathcal{H}$ is the Hilbert space corresponding to a single qubit, and $W$ is defined as \begin{align} W(0,0) & = |...
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### What does it mean "less than identity" in the operator sum representation?

Matrix inequalities of the form $A\ge B$ should be read as $$A-B\ge 0\ ,$$ which in turn means that all eigenvalues of $A-B$ are larger or equal than zero. In the given case, $M\le I$ means that ...
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### Is the Kraus representation of a quantum channel equivalent to a unitary evolution in an enlarged space?

This question is posed, and answered positively, in Nielsen & Chuang in a subsection of chapter 8 entitled "System-environment models for and operator-sum representation". In my version, it can be ...
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### Can the Kraus decomposition always be chosen to be a statistical mixture of unitary evolutions?

You cannot always find such a Kraus decomposition. Notice that any CPTP map $\mathcal E$ which does have a decomposition as a probabilistic mixture unitaries is unital, which is to say that it maps ...
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### Do the Kraus operators of a CPTP channel need to be orthogonal?

There is an ambiguity in the choice of Kraus operators: If $\{E_a\}$ is a set of Kraus operators for a channel $\mathcal E$, so is $\{F_b\}$ with $F_b=\sum_a v_{ab} E_a$, with $(v_{ab})$ an isometry. ...
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### Positive semidefinite relationship after partial trace

No, not necessarily. For example, take $\rho$ to be a GHZ state and let $\sigma$ be the completely mixed state of one qubit. We then have $\lambda=4$ and $\mu=2$.
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### Significance of The Church of the Higher Hilbert space

"Church of the higher hilbert space" is a term coined by John Smolin. According to quantiki it is: for the dilation constructions of channels and states, which [...] provide a neat characterization ...
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### Is acting with a positive map on a state not part of a larger system allowed?

Any map which is not Completely Positive, Trace Preserving (CPTP), is not possible as an "allowed operation" (a more-or-less complete account of how some system transforms) in quantum mechanics, ...
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### If all quantum gates must be unitary, what about measurement?

There are several misconceptions here, most of them originate from exposure to only the pure state formalism of quantum mechanics, so let's address them one by one: All quantum operations must be ...
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### What is the "Stinespring Dilation"?

Not exactly sure what you find confusing, but the ultimate need for Stinespring dilation theorem is that in quantum mechanics the dynamics is in general defined by a completely positive trace ...
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