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For interactions between non-nearest neighbour qubits, ancilla qubits are required, together with SWAP gates. The state of one of the (in this case) two qubits is swapped with the ancilla. This operation is repeated until the qubits are NN, and then the interaction can take place. After this is done, then the state of the ancilla is swapped back with the ...


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If you don't have the ability to perform the controlled-not directly between a pair of qubits, then you simply need to swap the qubits to place them onto a pair of qubits which can have a controlled-not applied to them.


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