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Can arbitrary matrices be decomposed using the Pauli basis?

For any matrix $A$ we can write $$ A =\sum_{i,j,k,l}h_{ijkl}\cdot \frac{1}{4}\sigma_i\otimes\sigma_j\otimes\sigma_k\otimes\sigma_l, $$ where $$ h_{ijkl} = \frac{1}{4}\text{Tr}\big((\sigma_i\otimes\...
Danylo Y's user avatar
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17 votes

How to construct matrix of regular and "flipped" 2-qubit CNOT?

$$ CNOT = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ \end{bmatrix} $$But what does this matrix ...
Perry Sakkaris's user avatar
15 votes
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How can I decompose a matrix in terms of Pauli matrices?

I call this the "Paulinomial decomposition" as you are writing the matrix $H$ as a polynomial of Pauli matrices: $H=a_{XX}X_1X_2 + a_{XY}X_1Y_2 +a_{XZ}X_1Z_2 + a_{XI}X_1 + a_{YY}Y_1Y_2 + \...
user1271772 No more free time's user avatar
14 votes
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Is the Pauli group for $n$-qubits a basis for $\mathbb{C}^{2^n\times 2^n}$?

Yes, the set of tensor products of all possible $n$ Pauli operators (including $I$) form an orthogonal basis for the vector space of $2^n \times 2^n$ complex matrices. To see this first we notice ...
biryani's user avatar
  • 1,006
14 votes

Can arbitrary matrices be decomposed using the Pauli basis?

$\newcommand{\bs}[1]{{\boldsymbol #1}} \newcommand{\tildebssigma}{\tilde{\bs\sigma}} \newcommand{\bssigma}{{\bs\sigma}}$Yes, products of Pauli matrices form a basis for the set of Hermitian matrices (...
glS's user avatar
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14 votes
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Why isn't $Ry(\pi/2)$ gate equivalent to Hadamard gate?

While Hadamard gate is defined as $$ H= \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 \\ 1 & -1 \end{pmatrix}, $$ $y$-rotation by $\pi/2$ leads to gate $$ Ry(\pi/2)= \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \begin{...
Martin Vesely's user avatar
13 votes
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How are arbitrary $2\times 2$ matrices decomposed in the Pauli basis?

The Pauli matrices form an orthogonal basis of $\mathcal{M}_2$, this vector space can be endowed with a scalar product called the Hilbert-Schmidt inner product $$ \langle A,B\rangle=\mathrm{Tr}(A^\...
user2723984's user avatar
  • 1,106
13 votes
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How to construct matrix of regular and "flipped" 2-qubit CNOT?

The CNOT gate is a 2-qubit gate, and consequently, its operation cannot be expressed by the tensor product of two one-qubit gates as the example you gave with the Hadamard gates. An easy way to check ...
Josu Etxezarreta Martinez's user avatar
11 votes
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How to compute the average value $\langle X_1 Z_2\rangle$ for a two-qubit system?

I suggest two different ways of trying to solve this, which will give you experience of different bits of the formulation of Quantum Information Theory. I'll give examples that are closely related to ...
DaftWullie's user avatar
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11 votes
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How is the ground state of a Hamiltonian defined?

A couple of points: The ground state is by definition the eigenvector associated with the minimum valued eigenvalue. Lets consider the Pauli Z matrix as you have. First, \begin{align*} Z = \begin{...
Arthur-1's user avatar
  • 525
11 votes
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Qiskit CNOT-gate matrix mixup?

Qiskit uses "little endian" bit ordering. That means, if A and B are $2 \times 2$ unitary matrices then $B \otimes A$ (note the order) is equivalent to applying $A$ to first qubit and $B$ to ...
Egretta.Thula's user avatar
10 votes
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Can we write Pauli-Y gate without even complex part?

As noted by @KAJ226 in another answer, the global phase factor $i$ is unobservable and can be ignored, unless we are considering a controlled gate in which case the phase factor $i$ becomes a relative ...
Adam Zalcman's user avatar
10 votes

What is (formally) a transversal operator?

Based on informal conversations: there is no actually agreed upon definition of a transversal operator. People use it to mean different things. Typically it refers to either the operation being fast ...
Craig Gidney's user avatar
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9 votes
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Obtaining gate $e^{-i\Delta t Z}$ from elementary gates

One way order to perform Z rotations by arbitrary angles is to approximate them with a sequence of Hadamard and T gates. If you need the approximation to have maximum error $\epsilon$, there are known ...
Craig Gidney's user avatar
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9 votes
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How do I prove that the Hadamard satisfies $H\equiv e^{i\pi H/2}$?

First of all, note that the statement, as written, is wrong (or rather, it is correct only as long as the "$\equiv$" symbol is taken to mean "equal up to a phase"). An easy way to see it is by ...
glS's user avatar
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8 votes
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What is the difference between the action of $Z$ and $\exp(-i Z t)$ on a state?

Effectively, the Z operation (represented by the Pauli $Z$ matrix) applies a rotation about the $Z$-axis. As you note, rotations can also be written in the form $e^{...
Chris Granade's user avatar
8 votes
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What does the notation $\sigma_j^z$ mean for Pauli matrices?

What $\sigma^z_i$ means is that you've got a Pauli-$Z$ applied to qubit $i$, and nothing else on the other qubits (i.e. the identity). So, you could expand it as $$ I^{\otimes(i-1)}\otimes\sigma^z\...
DaftWullie's user avatar
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8 votes
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How do I create an inverse identity gate?

As a general rule, you wouldn't bother constructing this: it is just a global phase that has no observable consequence. If you really insist on doing this, introduce an ancilla qubit in the $|1\rangle$...
DaftWullie's user avatar
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8 votes
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How to perform a controlled Pauli string rotation gate?

This is nearly a built-in decomposition in cirq. Here's what happens when you decompose a Pauli product: ...
Craig Gidney's user avatar
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8 votes
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Calculate $\sqrt[4]{X}$ for the Pauli $X$ gate

There are a couple of ways that you might do this calculation directly. I'd start by finding the spectral decomposition of $X$: $$ X=|+\rangle\langle +|-|-\rangle\langle -|=e^{i0}|+\rangle\langle +|+e^...
DaftWullie's user avatar
  • 59.3k
8 votes

What are the relations between the permutation group and the Clifford group?

I guess you're talking about unitaries which preserve computational basis states, i.e. which act as $U|x\rangle = |f(x)\rangle$ where $f:\,\mathbb F_2^n \rightarrow \mathbb F_2^n$ is a reversible ...
Markus Heinrich's user avatar
8 votes
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Do the operators $\Phi(\sigma_k)$ form a basis if $\sigma_k$ do?

No, not necessarily. For example, the channel $\Phi(\rho) = \operatorname{Tr}(\rho) \vert 0 \rangle \langle 0 \vert$ makes $\{\Phi(\sigma_0), \ldots, \Phi(\sigma_3)\}$ linearly dependent. (In fact, ...
John Watrous's user avatar
  • 6,127
7 votes

Can there be multiple energy eigenstates corresponding to the same eigenvalue of a Hamiltonian (Pauli-X)?

The quantum states that differ by a global phase (i.e., by a complex number multiple which has absolute value of 1) are considered the same quantum state, since they can not be distinguished using any ...
Mariia Mykhailova's user avatar
7 votes
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Definition of the Pauli group and the Clifford group

Note that the second definition actually doesn't make more sense in the context of the stabiliser formalism, as neither of $\pm i Y$ have a +1 eigenspace. That means that you can only describe states ...
Niel de Beaudrap's user avatar
7 votes

How to create the state $\vert 0 \rangle+i \vert 1 \rangle$ using elementary gates?

Starting with the state $|\psi_0 \rangle = |0\rangle$, and we want to get to the state $|\psi_f \rangle = \dfrac{|0\rangle + i|1\rangle}{\sqrt{2}}$ then we must realize that we need to create some ...
KAJ226's user avatar
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7 votes
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How do I decompose the given $4\times 4$ matrix in terms of Pauli matrices?

I'm really not sure what the truth table is trying to represent but let me present a solution that (at least I think) is fairly simple. First we note that the Pauli matrices together with the identity ...
Rammus's user avatar
  • 5,968
7 votes

How to construct the two qubit gate generated by the Hamiltonian $H= X\otimes X + Y \otimes Y + Z \otimes Z $?

TL;DR: The two-qubit gate corresponding to the Hamiltonian is the SWAP gate. For an operator $A$ that squares to identity $A^2=I$, we have $e^{i\theta A} = I\cos\theta +iA\sin\theta$. In our case the ...
Adam Zalcman's user avatar
7 votes

Can we write Pauli-Y gate without even complex part?

$\begin{pmatrix} 0 & -i \\ i & 0 \end{pmatrix} = i \begin{pmatrix} 0 & -1 \\ 1 & 0 \end{pmatrix} $ There is no reason to factor out the $i$, it just make thing more cumbersome. I think ...
KAJ226's user avatar
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7 votes
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How to prove the fundamental equation in the theory of angular momentum $\sum_{l=x,y,z}\langle J_l^2\rangle\le\frac{N(N+2)}{4}$?

We can transform the left hand side as follows $$ \begin{align} \sum_{l=x,y,z}\langle J_l^2\rangle &= \sum_{l=x,y,z}\langle\psi|J_l^2|\psi\rangle \\ &= \langle\psi|\left(\sum_{l=x,y,z}J_l^2\...
Adam Zalcman's user avatar
7 votes
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Prove the fidelity can be written in terms of Pauli expectation values as ${\rm tr}(\rho\sigma)=\sum_k \chi_\rho(k)\chi_\sigma(\rho)$

Background If $v_1, v_2, \dots, v_n$ is an orthonormal basis in the inner product space $V$, then any vector $u\in V$ can be expressed as a linear combination $$ u = \alpha_1 v_1 + \alpha_2 v_2 + \...
Adam Zalcman's user avatar

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