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Which error channel definitions should I use if I want to compare the performance of a QEC protocol for depolarizing errors vs dephasing errors?

In the literature on biased-noise error correction, people use option 2. See, e.g.: We define $p = p_x +p_y +p_z$ to be the probability of any single-qubit error in https://arxiv.org/abs/1708.08474, ...
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Building a realistic noise model in Qiskit

There might be a better manner to do that, but anyway: You can generate a NoiseModel instance from an actual backend (or from fake V1 backends) by using the ...
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Is the assumption of constant per gate error probability $q$ in quantum computation proved , practical or valid?

The quantum threshold theorem only requires the noise to be below a certain threshold. Consistency is not required. So I don’t think there’s any assumption made here. However, an assumption that IS ...

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