# Tag Info

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### How does the vectorization map relate to the Choi and Kraus representations of a channel?

One way to understand the relationship between the Choi representation of a channel and its possible Kraus representations is to use the vectorization map. Suppose that we have two finite-dimensional ...
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### Counterexamples in quantum information theory

Quantum Channels Quantum channels: general properties Not every positive map is completely positive. One may argue that this is the mother of all counterexamples in quantum information: the ...
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### What is the "complementary map" of a channel with given Kraus decomposition?

Let's start by finding a complementary channel for any channel given by a Kraus representation $$\Phi(X) = \sum_{k=1}^n A_k X A_k^{\dagger}.$$ To make the necessary equations clear, let us assume ...
• 6,127
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### Is the Kraus representation of a quantum channel equivalent to a unitary evolution in an enlarged space?

This question is posed, and answered positively, in Nielsen & Chuang in a subsection of chapter 8 entitled "System-environment models for and operator-sum representation". In my version, it can be ...
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### What does it mean "less than identity" in the operator sum representation?

Matrix inequalities of the form $A\ge B$ should be read as $$A-B\ge 0\ ,$$ which in turn means that all eigenvalues of $A-B$ are larger or equal than zero. In the given case, $M\le I$ means that ...
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### Do the Kraus operators of a CPTP channel need to be orthogonal?

There is an ambiguity in the choice of Kraus operators: If $\{E_a\}$ is a set of Kraus operators for a channel $\mathcal E$, so is $\{F_b\}$ with $F_b=\sum_a v_{ab} E_a$, with $(v_{ab})$ an isometry. ...
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### Can the Kraus decomposition always be chosen to be a statistical mixture of unitary evolutions?

You cannot always find such a Kraus decomposition. Notice that any CPTP map $\mathcal E$ which does have a decomposition as a probabilistic mixture unitaries is unital, which is to say that it maps ...
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### Quantum capacity for serial composition of quantum channels

TL;DR Quantum capacity of $\mathcal{N}_2\circ\mathcal{N}_1$ can be anywhere between zero and the minimum of the quantum capacities of $\mathcal{N}_1$ and $\mathcal{N}_2$. Background Quantum capacity ...
• 23k
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### How to use the Kraus operators to represent the total density matrix instead of the reduced one?

You have \newcommand{\ket}[1]{\lvert #1\rangle}U(\ket\psi\otimes\ket0) = \bigg(I\otimes \underbrace{\sum_\ell \ket\ell\!\langle\ell|}_{\equiv I}\bigg) U (\ket\psi\otimes\ket0) \\ = \sum_\ell (I\...
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### Is a quantum channel reversible if all Kraus operators are proportional to unitaries?

No. The key thing about what Preskill is saying is that all the Kraus operators must be proportional to the same unitary. Your two Kraus operators are proportional to different Kraus operators.
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Examples The condition $[A_a, B_b]=0$ is sufficient, but not necessary for $\Phi$ and $\Psi$ to commute. Indeed, the standard Kraus representations of many commuting pairs of channels have non-...