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The ion states are the different energy states of the ion. These different energy states can be denoted with the total spin of the ion and the phonon levels of the ion. If we look at a Helium atom which has two electrons the total spin can be S = 0 if the electrons are in the following spin state: $$ \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(\uparrow \downarrow-\downarrow \...


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