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Questions tagged [haar-distribution]

Having to do with continuous distributions, which are 'uniform' in the sense of being invariant under some relevant symmetry. In the case of quantum information theory, this usually relates to unitarily invariant distributions on single-qubit states, many-qubit states, single-qubit unitary transformations, or many-qubit unitary transformations.

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Is there a concentration inequality for the quantum gate fidelity $F(C,U)$ for a channel $C$ such that $\int dU F(C,U)=X$?

For a fixed quantum channel $N$ and a unitary channel $U$, we define $N$'s gate fidelity as $$ F(N,U) = \int \langle \psi| U \, N(| \psi \rangle \langle \psi |) \, U^\dagger| \psi \rangle d\mu_H(\psi)$...
Davide Li Calsi's user avatar
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Matrix representation of the symmetric subspace for two copies

Consider two copies of an $n$ qubit Haar random state, given by: \begin{equation} \rho = \mathbb{E}_{U \sim \mathsf{Haar}}\left[U |0^n\rangle \langle 0^n| U^{*}\otimes U |0^n\rangle \langle 0^n| U^{*}\...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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Density Matrix for a Quantum Circuit with Clifford Gates and a $T$ Gate in Qiskit

I am trying to analyze the impact of a single $T$ gate within a quantum circuit that primarily consists of Clifford gates. My goal is to understand the $T$ gate's role in $T$-design and Anti-...
Asim Sharma's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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Simulating Large Quantum Systems with Single T-Gate in Qiskit: Memory Error Beyond Certain Qubit Threshold

I'm currently conducting experiments on unitary t-designs, utilizing random Clifford and T gates within the Qiskit framework. My goal is to simulate quantum circuits that involve the application of a ...
Asim Sharma's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
96 views

Two qubit Pauli expectation value of $\underset{U}{\mathbb{E}}[U^{\otimes 2} (P_1 \otimes P_2)^{\otimes 2} U^{*\otimes 2}]$

I want to find a value for the expression: $$\underset{U}{\mathbb{E}}[U^{\otimes 2} (P_1 \otimes P_2)^{\otimes 2} U^{*\otimes 2}],$$ where $U$ is a two-qubit unitary operator chosen Haar randomly, $...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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Expected trace distance between two types of random ensembles

Consider a Haar random state on $n$ qubits, and denote it by $|\psi\rangle$. Now consider the following state $$|\phi\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{k}} \sum_{i=1}^{k} |\phi_{1, i} \rangle \otimes |\phi_{2, ...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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How to calculate the volume of a point set with parameters go over the Haar distribution?

Speically, how to calculate the volume of the set $\{(|\langle\psi|M_1|\psi\rangle|^2,...,|\langle\psi|M_s|\psi\rangle|^2)|\rho \in \mathbb{H}^n\}$ in the space $\mathbb{R}^{s}$, in which $\mathbb{H}^...
Atian's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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How do I calculate the expectation of the rational function, in the sense of the Haar measure?

I want to know the analytical solution of $\mathbb{E}_{\psi}\frac{\langle \psi |A|\psi\rangle}{\langle \psi |A^2|\psi\rangle}$. I see similar questions before approximate average, but it does not ...
Dan David's user avatar
2 votes
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How to integrate a function with the Haar measure over multiple qubits

I am starting with a product state over multiple qubits. That looks like the expression below. $$ |\psi\rangle = \left(\cos\left(\frac{\theta_1}{2}\right)|0\rangle+e^{i\phi_1}\sin\left(\frac{\theta_1}{...
Endeavour 's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
160 views

Moments of Pauli coefficients of Haar-random states

I want to evaluate the quantity $\sum_{P\in \rm{P}^n}\text{Tr}^{\alpha}(\rho P)$, where $P$ is an element of n-qubit Pauli group $\rm{P}^n$ and $\rho$ is a density matrix of a Haar random state. It is ...
Feng Pan's user avatar
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80 views

What is the expectation value of the overlap of two uniformly random pure states? [duplicate]

Let $\psi$ and $\phi$ be two uniformly random pure state $\psi, \phi \sim\mathbb{C}^d$. The the following equality holds \begin{align} \mathbb{E}_{\psi, \phi \sim \mathbb{C}^d} {\rm Tr}[\vert \phi \...
Michael.Andy's user avatar
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A question on a subset of projectors onto symmetric subspace

Use $\text{perm}_t$ to denote the set of all permutations among $t$ items. For any particular subset $S\subseteq\{0,1\}^n$ and any $\sigma\in \text{perm}_t$, we define \begin{align} P_S(\sigma) = \...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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How to calculate the Haar measure for the middle SU(2), in an SU(3) factorization?

I read this blog https://pennylane.ai/qml/demos/tutorial_haar_measure#deguise2018 regarding a basic introduction to haar measure. In the "show me more math" section, they said $SU(3)$ can be ...
Việt Nguyễn's user avatar
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1 answer
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Schur's lemma for quantum states

I am trying to understand Lemma 2 in this paper. Consider a state $\tau_{H^n}=\int \sigma^{\otimes n}_{H} \mu(\sigma)$ where $\mu(\sigma)$ is the measure on the space of density operators on a single ...
user1936752's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Does integrating w.r.t. the Haar measure commute with taking partial trace?

Consider a density matrix $\rho(U)$ which depends on $U \in SU(2^n)$, corresponding to a state of a composite, finite-dimensional Hilbert space $\mathcal{H} \cong \bigotimes_{i=1}^{2^n} \mathbb{C}^2$ ...
Silly Goose's user avatar
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0 answers
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Measure on the unitary space and complexity

I'm currently studying various quantum supremacy protocols and i'm struggling to have a clear and well defined view on the rôle of approximating the Haar-measure (through k-designs ...) and the ...
Johan-Luca's user avatar
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2 answers
369 views

What is the expectation value of $|\langle \psi|U|\psi \rangle|$ over Haar random states $|\psi\rangle$?

We know the average unitary fidelity, $\int |\langle \psi|U|\psi \rangle|^2 d\psi$, has a nice closed-form solution: $\frac{1+\frac{1}{d}|Tr (U)|^2}{1+d}$, thanks to Horodecki and Nielsen. However, I ...
Abir's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
221 views

Symmetric subspaces and Haar averaging over the Unitary group

I am interested in the following Haar average over the unitary group $D(x) = \int d\mathscr{U} ~(\mathscr{U})^{\otimes 2}(|\tilde{x}_{\mathscr{U}}\rangle\langle \tilde{x}_{\mathscr{U}}|)^{\otimes 2} (\...
Ghost-of-PPPF's user avatar
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1 answer
166 views

Twirling of quantum states: Maximally entangled states

I have been reading the paper "Resource theory of unextendibility and non-asymptotic quantum capacity" (https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.10710.pdf) by Kaur et.al, I have two questions ...
Newuser7's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
248 views

Expressibility and Entanglement Capability of the Parameterized Quantum Circuits

I am trying to calculate the expressibility and entangling capability of a quantum state resulting from a circuit as defined in reference I. One of my attempts was to follow reference II which gives ...
Luccas Marim's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
114 views

How to compute k-moment of Haar averaging with n qubits

Let us consider the following Haar averaging over $k$ copies of Pauli strings of $n$ qubits: $\mathbb{E}_U \left[ U^{\otimes k}\sigma_{q_1} \otimes … \otimes \sigma_{q_k} (U^{\dagger})^{\otimes k}\...
Emma's user avatar
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1 answer
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Werner Twirling Channel - How to Retrieve Prefactors?

In Watrous' Theory of Quantum Information, Example 7.25 discusses the Werner Twirling Channel: $$\Xi(X) = \int (U \otimes U) X (U \otimes U)^* \mathrm{d}\eta(U)$$ where $\eta$ denotes the Haar measure ...
Juri V's user avatar
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8 votes
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Optimal estimation of quantum state overlap - Circuit implementation?

I've been reading this paper, but don't understand what their optimal method really is, and how it can be realized as a quantum circuit. The paper mentions the "Schur transform" which has a ...
Loic Stoic's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
400 views

Integral over Haar measure of squared density matrix of Haar random state is proportional to the identity plus swap operator

I am having some trouble understanding why $\int d\psi (| \psi \rangle \langle \psi | )^{\otimes ^2}\propto \ I+$ SWAP , where $|\psi \rangle =U|\psi _0\rangle$ are Haar random states and $d\psi $ is ...
Andrew Dynneson's user avatar
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1 answer
177 views

Generating random, but non-uniform state

I would like an algorithm that generates a random state, sampled according to some probability distribution which is not uniform in Hilbert space. Assume though that I have at my disposal a uniform (...
nervxxx's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Independence in state prepared by independently drawn Haar random gates

Consider independently drawn $2 \times 2$ Haar random unitaries $U_1, U_2, \ldots, U_n$ and $$V = U_1 \otimes U_2 \otimes \cdots U_n.$$ Consider the state $\sigma$ given by $$\sigma = V \rho V^{*}, $$ ...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
136 views

Computing a ratio involving Haar random unitaries

Consider an $n$-qubit Haar random unitary $U$. I am trying to compute the expression \begin{equation} \mathbb{E}\left[ \frac{\text{Tr}\left(|0^n\rangle \langle 0^n | ~U\rho U^*\right)}{\text{Tr}\left(\...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
435 views

Averaging over a single Haar-random unitary applied $t$ times

I'm trying to compute the following integral: $$\int U^{\otimes t}\left|x_1,\cdots,x_t\middle\rangle\middle\langle x'_1,\cdots,x_n'\right|\left(U^\dagger\right)^{\otimes t}\,\mathrm{d}\mu(U)$$ Where $\...
Tristan Nemoz's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Conditional expectation for Haar random states

Let $U$ be an $n$ qubit Haar random circuit applied to $|0^n \rangle$. Thereafter, the state is measured in the standard basis. Let $p_0$ be the probability of getting $0$ in the first qubit. We know ...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
387 views

Realizing Haar random unitary matrix on IBM Q

I am thinking about if it is possible to achieve Haar random single qubit unitary matrix on some real quantum computers like IBM Q. I am reading a paper https://arxiv.org/abs/2203.04338. In this paper,...
jisutich's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
112 views

Distribution of partial trace of Haar unitary

I am sure this must have been covered in the mathematical literature, but hoping someone can direct me to the right place. Let us be given random unitaries $U$ on $n$ qubits (so dimension of the space ...
nervxxx's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
324 views

Haar measure : trace of an operator squared and square of the trace of an operator

From doing numerical simulations, I seem to have the following results : $$ \int d \rho \,\, \text{Tr}(\rho M^\dagger M) = \frac{1}{d} \text{Tr}(M^\dagger M) $$ and $$ \int d \rho \,\, \left|\text{Tr}(...
Denis _J's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
453 views

Density matrices of multiples copies of a single Haar-Random state

In Pseudorandom States, Non-Cloning Theorems and Quantum Money, the authors state that: Let $\rho_\mu^m$ be the density matrix of a random $|\psi\rangle^{\otimes m}$ for $|\psi\rangle$ chosen from ...
Tristan Nemoz's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
79 views

Expectation value over random $k$-local Pauli operators for two random quantum states

Suppose we have a uniform distribution $D$ over $k$-local Pauli operators $P_{q_1}\otimes \dotsc \otimes P_{q_k} $, $P_{q_i} \in \{ X, Y, Z, I \}$. Is it possible to calculate $\mathbb{E}_{P_i \sim D} ...
userflux9674's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
158 views

Does the invariance of the Haar measure still hold if you use Clifford gates to approximate the Haar random unitaries?

I am not familiar with the Clifford group - I do know that Clifford unitaries can form a unitary 3-design (from this paper) and can be used to approximate Haar random unitaries, but I don't know how ...
Scott's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
320 views

Prove that uniformly random states have moments ${\bf E}_\psi|\langle x|\psi\rangle|^{2t}\sim1/\binom d t$

Im looking for the moments of Haar random states. Is it true that $\textbf{E}_{\psi\sim \text{Haar}}|\langle x| \psi\rangle|^{2t}\sim \frac{1}{\binom{d}{t}}?$ How does one prove this?
postasguest's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
841 views

Show that, averaging over uniformly random unitaries, $\mathbb{E}[UXU^\dagger]=\operatorname{Tr}(X)\frac{I}{d}$

As mentioned e.g. in this answer, if we compute the average $$\Phi(X)\equiv \mathbb{E}_U[UXU^\dagger] \equiv \int_{\mathbf U(d)} d\mu(U) UXU^\dagger,$$ where $d\mu(U)$ is the Haar measure over the ...
glS's user avatar
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1 vote
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How to compute Haar average over the unitary group of a ratio of homogeneous polynomials?

I am interested in the following Haar average over the unitary group: $\mathbb{E}_U\Big[\frac{tr(U^{\otimes p}|j\rangle\langle j|(U^\dagger)^{\otimes p}\rho \otimes \sigma ...)}{tr(U^{\otimes q}|j\...
Ghost-of-PPPF's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
106 views

A question on random quantum states and the uniform distribution

Consider an $n$ qubit Haar random quantum state $|\psi\rangle$. Consider a distribution $\mathcal{D}_1$ over $n$ bit strings defined as $$ p_x = |\langle x| \psi \rangle|^{2}, $$ for $x \in \{0, 1\}^{...
Tom Clancy's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
369 views

Multiplication by a Haar random unitary two times

Consider a Haar random unitary $U$. I am trying to compute the value (or put a bound on) \begin{equation} \mathbb{E}\left[\left|\langle 0^{n} |U^{2} |0^{n}\rangle\right|^{2}\right]. \end{equation} The ...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
137 views

Approximating the average of a rational function with respect to the Haar measure

Suppose I have a state $|\psi\rangle = U|0\rangle$ where $U$ is a $d$-dimensional unitary sampled uniformly with respect the Haar measure. I'm interested in computing or approximating analytically an ...
forky40's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
331 views

What is the expectation value ${\Bbb E}[\langle\psi,O\psi\rangle]$ over the Haar distribution?

What is the average $\mathbb{E}_{\text{Haar}}|\langle\psi|O\psi\rangle|$ of expectation of an arbitrary observable $O$ over the Haar distribution? Let $d$ be the dimension, i.e, the size of $O$. Do we ...
doug doug's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
187 views

How to show that the integral over all Haar states vanishes: $\int|\psi\rangle\,{\rm d}\psi = 0 $?

Can we show that the integral over all Haar states $|\psi \rangle $ is $$ \int |\psi \rangle \, \mathrm{d}\psi = 0~. $$ This is an integral over Haar vectors Reference to a post about what is Haar ...
qc6518's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
52 views

Sampling Haar over two systems

Say $M$ is a matrix acting on $C^r \otimes C^s$. $X$ is the system of dimension $r$, and $Y$ is the system of dimension $s$. With $|\psi\rangle$ sampled from Haar, how can we show that $$ \int (...
qc6518's user avatar
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14 votes
2 answers
7k views

What is a Haar random quantum state?

Can somebody please explain me what is a Haar random state? I am not able to find any friendly resource to read about it.
Shweta Aggrawal's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
89 views

Anticoncentration for two independent random quantum circuits in parallel

Consider two Haar random $n$ qubit unitaries, $U_1$ and $U_2$. Consider the quantum state $$|\psi\rangle = (U_1 \otimes U_2) |0^{2n}\rangle. $$ Let $p_x = |\langle x| \psi \rangle|^{2}$, for $x \in \{...
Tom Clancy's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
293 views

Reduced density matrix of a Haar random state and its Schmidt decomposition

Consider a Haar random quantum state $|\psi\rangle$. Note that $$\rho =\mathbb{E}[|\psi\rangle\langle \psi|] = \frac{\mathbb{I}_{n}}{2^{n}}.$$ $\mathbb{I}_n$ is the identity operator on $n$ qubits. ...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
544 views

Random quantum states and Schur-Weyl duality

Consider the following density matrix over $n$ qubits, with $C$ being a single qubit operator: $$ \rho_{n} = \int_{C \sim \text{Haar}} \big(C|0\rangle\langle0|C^\dagger\big)^{\otimes n} dC. $$ Let's ...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Optimality of the SWAP test versus weak Schur sampling for testing unitarily invariant properties

Consider the following setting. I am either given the density matrix $|\psi\rangle \langle \psi|^{\otimes k}$ or the density matrix $\frac{\mathbb{I}^{\otimes k}}{2^{nk}}$, where $\mathbb{I}$ is the $...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
335 views

At what depth and for what architecture are random quantum circuits $1$-designs?

I was confused about something related to quantum $1$ designs. Let us recap two facts we know about random circuit ensembles that form a $1$ design. $1$ design, for a quantum circuit over $n$ qubits, ...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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