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In my understanding, the key part for entanglement to increase capacity is to have a suboptimal channel. Suppose the input of you channel can take value in the set $X$, and note $G(X)$ the graph where nodes are possible inputs and there is an edge between to inputs if the range of their corresponding output is overlapping, i.e. When going through the channel ...


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This happens for any maximally entangled state $|\Psi\rangle$ and operator $E$. Indeed, a maximally entangled state is, by definition, one whose partial trace is the maximally mixed one. Writing $|\Psi\rangle\equiv\sum_{ij}\psi_{ij}|ij\rangle$, this means that $\sum_i \psi_{ij}\bar\psi_{kj}=\delta_{ik}/D$, with $D$ the dimension of each space ($D=2$ in your ...


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Mathematically, this has nothing to do with the positivity of $E$. It doesn't really have anything to do with $E$ at all - it's a property of the Bell states themselves (you've probably not got there yet, but they have the same reduced density matrices). I presume the reason for specifying the positivity of $E$ in the question is to help you make the ...


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I will try to succinctly answer your first question given that I possess little knowledge regarding entanglement assistance. Shannon's capacity theorem (the noisy channel coding theorem) states that for any code $\mathbf{C}$ of code rate $R \leq C$, where $C$ represents the channel capacity, an encoding and decoding scheme of rate $R$ with a probability of ...


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