Boson sampling constitutes a restricted model of non-universal quantum computation introduced by S. Aaronson and A. Arkhipov. It consists of sampling from the probability distribution of identical bosons scattered by a linear interferometer. (Wikipedia)

Boson Sampling

Boson sampling constitutes a restricted model of non-universal quantum computation introduced by S. Aaronson and A. Arkhipov. It consists of sampling from the probability distribution of identical bosons scattered by a linear interferometer. Although the problem is well defined for any bosonic particles, its photonic version is currently considered as the most promising platform for a scalable implementation of a boson sampling device, which makes it a non-universal approach to linear optical quantum computing. Moreover, while not universal, the boson sampling scheme is strongly believed to implement a classically hard task using far fewer physical resources than a full linear-optical quantum computing setup. This makes it an outstanding candidate for demonstrating the power of quantum computation in the near term.

Read more on Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boson_sampling