Questions tagged [tensor-product]

A tensor is an abstract object generalising a scalar or vector and can be represented by a number, a 1D array, 2D matrix or higher order generalisations thereof. A tensor product is a product defined on these tensors yielding other tensors or a method to define or represent tensors. If appropriate, also use the [mathematics] tag.

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How to apply 2x2 matrix transformation gates upon 1x4 tensor product columns of two tensored qubits?

The tensor product of two qubits yields a 4-row column vector. Once tensored, how are we supposed to apply common gates such as NOT on just one of the qubits, an operation which expects 2x2 or at ...
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why is $H^{⊗2}$ used to denote the parallel action of two Hadamard gates?

Why is the tensor product used here, what's its meaning? I learned tensor products as an operation between 2 matrices, and have an effect such as the follows: How does the tensor product above relate ...
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Negative Probability — Reality vs Description [closed]

I understand that quantum physics supports the concept that the probability of a qubit collapsing into (say) 1, can be negative or positive… and that quantum computing uses this as a feature, adding ...
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Confusion regarding the tensor product usage in book

I have recently started with quantum computing, and I've found great book about it - Learn Quantum Computing with IBM Quantum Experience, which explains a lot of things in quite a simple language. ...
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Python shorthand for tensor product (Kronecker product)

When using numpy or tensorflow in Python, we can simply write C = A @ B for matrix ...
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Tensor product and Dirac notation

Can someone shows me how to proof this equality: $\frac{1}{\sqrt2}(\alpha|000⟩+\alpha|011⟩ + \beta|100⟩ + \beta|111⟩ )$ = $ \frac{1}{2\sqrt2}[(|00⟩+|11⟩) \otimes (\alpha|0⟩+\beta|1⟩) + (|01⟩+|10⟩) \...
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How the single qubit unitary (U) calculates when apply a gate to only one qubit at a time?

Qiskit Textbook, Chapter 2, Section 2.2. Single Qubit Gates on Multi-Qubit Statevectors (here). In here, they have described that: If we want to apply a gate to only one qubit at a time (such as in ...
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For a bipartite operator $M\in L(H_{AB})$, suppose $0\leq M\leq \mathbb{I}$. Prove $M^{AB}\leq M^A\otimes \mathbb{I}$

As stated in the title, let $M$ be a linear operator on a finite bipartite Hilbert space. Suppose $0\leq M^{AB}\leq \mathbb{I}$ and $0\leq M^A,M^B\leq\mathbb{I}$, where $M^A=\mathrm{Tr}_B\left(M^{AB}\...
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Is it possible to retrieve $|\psi_1\rangle,|\psi_2\rangle$ from their tensor product $|\psi_1\rangle\otimes|\psi_2\rangle$?

Consider two quantum states$$\left| \psi_1 \right> = \alpha \left|0\right> + \beta\left|1\right>$$ and $$\left| \psi_2 \right> = \gamma \left|0\right> + \delta\left|1\right>$$ Now ...
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Understanding the quantum circuit for the quantum adder Toffoli gate

I am trying to understand the toffoli operation for the quantum adder below: (especially for the second toffoli gate) but I am stuck in understanding the calculation to get the correct outputs. The ...
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In the hidden subgroup problem for finite Abelian groups, where does the state $\frac{1}{\sqrt{|G|}}\sum_{g\in G} |g,0\rangle$ come from?

I am new to the concept of HSP. Previously, I saw how to solve hidden subgroup problem over $\mathbb{Z}_2^n$, which was Simon's algorithm. Over there the first step was to apply $H^{\otimes n}$, which ...
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What is the "quantum mean value problem"?

What is the "Quantum mean value problem"? A definition I found was that it is "estimating the expected value of the tensor product observable on the output state of a quantum circuit&...
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How would I apply rotations to both qubits in a 2 qubit system?

Say I have the two qubit system $\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 1 \\ 1 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}$. I have two 2x2 unitary gates, one is a rotation ...
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How to create an observable: 'Identity \tensor Pauli gate' in Cirq

I am working on an implementation of the RQAOA algorithm on the Maxcut problem in Cirq. My graph G has n vertices. And after running a QAOA circuit with n qubits I obtain a state gammabeta (a vertical ...
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Can we express $\mathrm{tr}_A((A\otimes B)\rho_{AB})$ in terms of $A$, $B$, $\rho_A$ and $\rho_B$?

For a density matrix $\rho_{AB}$ and some operators $A, B$, is there a way to express $$\text{Tr}_A((A\otimes B)\rho_{AB})$$ using the reduced states $\rho_A$ and $\rho_B$ and operators $A$ and $B$? ...
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If you apply a unitary transformation to an entangled state, is it still entangled?

See title. If this is not true, is there a counter example? If it is not true, does it hold true for certain combinations of unitaries and entangled states?
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How does the sum of two operators act on a two-level system of qubits?

I am confused how the sum of N operators will act on an N-level system of qubits. Here, lets say N=2 so the state is $|00⟩_{CD}$. Then how will this operator $ X_{C} + Z_{D} ⊗ I_{C} + X_{D}$ act on ...
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In Stinespring dilation, can we always use a mixed state as the ancilla?

The Stinespring dilation theorem states that any CPTP map $\Lambda$ on a system with Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}$ can be represented as $$\Lambda[\rho]=tr_\mathcal{A}(U^\dagger (\rho\otimes |\phi\...
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Is the order of the tensor product in $|\phi\rangle\otimes|\chi\rangle=|\chi\rangle\otimes|\phi\rangle$ relevant? [duplicate]

I am reading this book “Quantum Computing Explained” by David McMahon. I found the following statement on page 74 Note that the order of the tensor product is not relevant, meaning $|\phi\rangle \...
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How do I represent my 3-qubit state in the computational basis?

I have taken the tensor product of $|0\rangle \otimes |-\rangle \otimes |+\rangle$ which resulted in the matrix $$\begin{bmatrix} 1/2\\ 1/2 \\ -1/2 \\ -1/2 \\ 0 \\ 0\\ 0\\ 0\\ \end{bmatrix}.$$ How ...
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Does $\mathrm{tr}(A \otimes B) = \mathrm{tr} (A) \otimes \mathrm{tr}(B)$ hold for partial trace?

I was reading this question from this site answered by DaftWullie. I would like to request you to read the question there. The answer says However, in this particular case, the calculation is much ...
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Are the two ways of interpreting the expression $(|a\rangle\otimes|b\rangle)(\langle c|\otimes\langle d|)(|e\rangle\otimes |f\rangle)$ equivalent?

Reading Nielsen and Chuang, I am under the impression that a linear operator on the tensor product can be written in two ways: \begin{equation} (\left|a\right> \otimes \left|b\right>)(\left<c\...
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Writing state $ |\Psi⟩ =\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}|00⟩+\frac{i}{\sqrt{2}}|01⟩$ as separate qubits (qiskit textbook)

While going through the IBM qiskit textbook online, I came across the following question in section 2.2: Write the state: $ |\Psi⟩ =\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}|00⟩+\frac{i}{\sqrt{2}}|01⟩$ as two separate ...
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Show that the two circuits are equivalent mathematically

This exercise wants me to prove the equivalence of the two circuits using their mathematical representations. Circuit 1: Circuit 2: Circuit 1 (q1 CNOT ...
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Stinespring dilation: Size of environment

Let $\mathcal{E}_{A\rightarrow B}$ be a quantum channel and consider its $n-$fold tensor product $\mathcal{E}^{\otimes n}_{A^n\rightarrow B^n}$. Any isometry $V_{A\rightarrow BE}$ that satisfies $\...
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Discrepancy in inner product between tensor products

I have noticed one identity in case of tensor product from this post. But I can't understand why it is true. $\langle v_i| \otimes \langle w_j| \cdot |w_k\rangle \otimes |v_m\rangle = \langle v_i|v_m\...
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Simulate Hamiltonians with Pauli operations (controlled time evolution)

I had a question last week regarding the simulation of Hamiltonians composed of the sum of Pauli products: How can I simulate Hamiltonians composed of Pauli matrices? I'm having a follow-up question: ...
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Trace distance of two classical-quantum state with hashing

Let's say I have a classical-quantum(cq) state $\rho_{XE}$, where the classical part $(X)$ is orthogonal. It's trace distance from another uniform density operator is defined to be: $$ \frac{1}{2}||\...
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Can every bipartite state be written as $\rho_{AB} = \sum_{ij} c_{ij}\sigma_A^i\otimes \omega_B^j$?

Can every bipartite quantum state (including entangled ones) be written in the following way $$\rho_{AB} = \sum_{ij} c_{ij}\sigma_A^i\otimes \omega_B^j$$ where $\sigma_A^i$ and $\omega_B^j$ are ...
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Quantum tensor product closer to Kronecker product?

Coming more from a computer science background, I never really studied tensor products, covariant/contravariant tensors etc. So until now, I was seeing the "tensor product" operation mostly ...
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Bell state preparation

I was watching some lectures on qubits. They were talking about how to generate a Bell state. They described it as follows: Prepare state 00: $$\left |0 \right> \otimes \left |0 \right>$$ Apply ...
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Changing the Basis

I am attempting to use a VQE algorithm to find the ground state of a deuterium nucleus by applying a constructed hamiltonian to an ansatz state with one parameter created by a circuit. While I am ...
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Is there a good way to mathematically write a CNOT operation over non-neighboring qubits in a circuit? [duplicate]

I was wondering if there is any way to present the CNOT matrix as we usually present single qubit operations $$... 1 \otimes NOT \otimes 1 ...$$ I know that for adjacent qubits in a circuit we can ...
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Is the tensor product of two states commutative?

I'm reading "Quantum Computing Expained" of David McMahon, and encountered a confusing concept. In the beginning of Chapter 4, author described the tensor product as below: To construct a ...
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Show that a $CZ$ gate can be implemented using a $CNOT$ gate and Hadamard gates

Show that a $CZ$ gate can be implemented using a $CNOT$ gate and Hadamard gates and write down the corresponding circuit. Recall from Quantum Information Theory that $Z=HXH$. As $CNOT$ is a ...
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Grover oracle result: vectors (0,1) & (0,1) => two Hadamards => product of two H results => CZ = (.5, .-5, -.5, -.5)

According to the Grover's algorithm section in the IBM Quantum Experience, if I have two qubits in the "one" state (vectors (0,1) and (0,1)), and I apply a Hadamard gate to each of them, and then ...
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Generic maths for two-qubit gates [closed]

With regard to this question/answer: How's the generalized behaviour of a two-qubit gate for the resulting two qubits? Here e.g. CNOT: If I apply the CNOT matrix to the tensor product, also the ...
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Tensor Product in Q#

Does anyone know how you can obtain a new state |z> from two pre-existing states |x> and ...
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How do I compute the output of quantum circuit involving multiple gates?

I'm new in quantum computing, I have this question. Qubits $x$ and $y$ are in $\mathbb{C}^2$ (column vector) and $A, B$ are unitary matrices ($A$ 8x8 and $B$ 4x4 matrix). If I'm not wrong the input ...
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Composition of tensor product

I don't have much confidence with density matrices, and I would like to be sure about a property of composition of tensor products operations. Specifically, $$ \sum_i \sum_j |a_i\rangle|b_i\rangle\...
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IBM quantum circuit - order of tensor product for equivalent matrix

I'm trying to understand how to apply tensor products on 3-qubit systems (or well at least 2 qubits). Let's take a basic example: where $$\lvert \psi \rangle = \lvert q_2q_1q_0\rangle $$ with $q_2$ ...
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What does the notation $U(B,\beta) = \prod_{j =1}^n e^{-i \beta \sigma_j^x} $ mean in the context of QAOA?

In the article Quantum Observables for continuous control of the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm via Reinforcement Learning, the following notation is used to describe an Unitary operation ...
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What is a local operator?

I have a sort of basic question. I think an operator that acts on $n$-partite states is defined (up to permutation of parties) to be local if it can be written as $$A = A_1 \otimes_{i=2}^n \mathbb{I}...
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2 qubit gate operation on multi qubit systems

Considering a 3 qubit system, what does the matrix operation will look like if I apply CNOT on qubit 1 and qubit 2 and then apply CNOT on qubit 1 and qubit 3?
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Is kronecker product identifiable?

I have a unitary matrix $U$ and a quantum state $\vert \Psi \rangle$ such that $$ U \vert \Psi \rangle = e^{i \theta} \vert \Psi \rangle.$$ I also know that my unitary matrix and my quantum state can ...
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Quantum Principal Component analysis by Seth Lloyd

I am currently reading the paper quantum principal component analysis from Seth Lloyd's article Quantum Principal Component Analysis There is the following equation stated. Suppose that on is ...
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How to obtain the tensor-product of two quantum operations (superoperators) explicitly?

I have an amplitude damping channel, denoted as a superoperator $\mathcal{E}$ with operator elements \begin{matrix} E_1=\begin{pmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & \sqrt{1-r} \end{pmatrix},\quad ...
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How should I interpret $|2\rangle|3\rangle$?

I am a beginner at QC. I was going through the basics of multi-qubits I encountered a state $|2\rangle|3\rangle$. I want clarification on the following points: Can I write $|2\rangle$ as $|10\...
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Clarification of bra-ket notation [duplicate]

How do I get from equation 1.31 to equation 1.32? It seems like some terms are changing.
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Prove that $\|p^{\otimes n} - q^{\otimes n}\| \leq n \|p-q\|$ for density operators $p,q$

I've been trying to figure this out for a while and I'm totally lost. My goal is to show that for two density operators $p$, $q$, that $$||p^{\otimes n} - q^{\otimes n}|| \leq n ||p-q||$$ So far ...