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Questions tagged [simulation]

For questions about simulating either quantum computers or simulating things on quantum computers.

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62
votes
3answers
2k views

Can a Turing machine simulate a quantum computer?

I know that a Turing machine1 can theoretically simulate "anything", but I don't know whether it could simulate something as fundamentally different as a quantum-based computer. Are there any ...
30
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2answers
1k views

Can a quantum computer simulate a normal computer?

Similar to the question Could a Turing Machine simulate a quantum computer?: given a 'classical' algorithm, is it always possible to formulate an equivalent algorithm which can be performed on a ...
22
votes
1answer
592 views

Explicit Lieb-Robinson Velocity Bounds

Lieb-Robinson bounds describe how effects are propagated through a system due to a local Hamiltonian. They are often described in the form $$ \left|[A,B(t)]\right|\leq Ce^{vt-l}, $$ where $A$ and $B$ ...
14
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3answers
873 views

What would a very simple quantum program look like?

After reading the "first programmable quantum photonic chip". I was wondering just what software for a computer that uses quantum entanglement would be like. Is there any example of code for specific ...
14
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3answers
415 views

How to compactly represent multiple qubit states?

Since access to quantum devices capable of quantum computing is still extremely limited, it is of interest to simulate quantum computations on a classical computer. Representing the state of $n$ ...
14
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3answers
3k views

Building a quantum computer in simulation

If one wants to start building a quantum computer from scratch inside simulations (like how people get to build a classical computer from scratch in the Nand2Tetris course), is it possible? If yes, ...
14
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1answer
403 views

Hamiltonian simulation is BQP-complete

Many papers assert that Hamiltonian simulation is BQP-complete (e.g., Hamiltonian simulation with nearly optimal dependence on all parameters and Hamiltonian Simulation by Qubitization). It is easy ...
14
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1answer
422 views

Obtaining gate $e^{-i\Delta t Z}$ from elementary gates

I am currently reading "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information" by Nielsen and Chuang. In the section about Quantum Simulation, they give an illustrative example (section 4.7.3), which I don't ...
12
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5answers
2k views

How would I implement the quantum oracle in Deutsch's algorithm?

I am trying to simulate Deutsch's algorithm (elementary case of Deutsch-Josza algorithm), and I am not entirely sure how I would go about implementing the quantum oracle necessary for the algorithm to ...
12
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4answers
954 views

Do real commercial quantum computers exist?

We have been reading about quantum computers being developed and tested in labs. And also, we have quantum simulator programs that use limited virtual qubits (up to 30-40 qubits if cloud-based). And ...
10
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2answers
2k views

Classical Memory enough to store states up to 40 qubits quantum system?

As a part of a discussion with my 'classical' friend, he insisted that making a a state machine for calculating the outcome of quantum computer is possible; so, simply calculate the outcomes of (known)...
10
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2answers
213 views

Hamiltonian simulation with complex coefficients

As part of a variational algorithm, I would like to construct a quantum circuit (ideally with pyQuil) that simulates a Hamiltonian of the form: $H = 0.3 \cdot Z_3Z_4 + 0.12\cdot Z_1Z_3 + [...] + - ...
10
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1answer
99 views

Is there any source which tabulates quantum computing algorithms for simulating physical systems?

I was wondering if there is a source (online or review article) which tabulates recent algorithms, and their complexities, used in simulating various physical systems. Something along the lines of: ...
10
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1answer
154 views

Simulating Clifford + few-T circuits

I want to simulate large stabilizer circuits (H/S/CNOT/MEASURE/feedforward) with a small number of T gates mixed in. How can I do this in a way that scales exponentially only in the number of T gates? ...
10
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1answer
183 views

Simulating a system inside a system

The minimum size of a computer that could simulate the universe would be the universe itself. This is quite a pretty big theory in classical computing and physics because to contain the information ...
8
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2answers
144 views

Can we perform quantum mechanical simulations using a quantum computer?

I'm a computer science major who's really keen on physics and quantum mechanics. I have started learning about Q# and D-Wave, but I just wanted to know if it's possible to test quantum mechanical ...
8
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1answer
84 views

Why does (almost) every pair of Hamiltonians generate, through repeated commutation, the whole space of Hermitian matrices?

In [1], the problem of simulating a Hamiltonian using repeated applications of a different set of Hamiltonians is discussed. In particular, let $A$ and $B$ be a pair of Hermitian operators, and let $\...
7
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2answers
2k views

Why doesn't the Gottesman-Knill theorem render quantum computing almost useless?

The Gottesman-Knill theore states (from Nielsen and Chuang) Suppose a quantum computation is performed which involves only the following elements: state preparations in the computational basis, ...
7
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2answers
116 views

How does one obtain amplitude information in Q#?

Is it possible to obtain amplitude information (in lexicographic ordering) for a particular qubit register in Q#? For example, in the following code: ...
7
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2answers
549 views

What do we mean by parity of qubits?

I am currently reading "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information" by Nielsen and Chuang. In the section about Quantum Simulation, they give an illustrative example (section 4.7.3), which I don't ...
7
votes
1answer
152 views

New algorithm for faster QC simulation by IBM

This new algorithm for QC calculation was introduced recently (2017 4Q) by IBM/ Pednault et al. to great fanfare. The paper seems more couched in the language of physics. Are there any basic ...
6
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2answers
237 views

Are quantum simulators like Microsoft Q# actually using quantum mechanics in their chips?

Unlike Google's Bristlecone or IBM's Qbit computer, do simulators like Q# or Alibaba really use quantum mechanics anywhere in their physical chips? Are they just defining properties using a classical ...
6
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3answers
361 views

Can we synthesize quantum many body systems with quantum computers quickly in the general case?

Quantum computing can be used to efficiently simulate quantum many-body systems. Solving such a problem is classically hard because its complexity grows exponentially with the problem size (roughly ...
6
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2answers
494 views

Incorrectly Calculating Probability Amplitudes for 3-qbit Circuit

I’m trying to calculate the probability amplitudes for this circuit: My Octave code is: ...
6
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1answer
118 views

What are the preferred numerical methods to simulate the evolution of a state through a time-dependent Hamiltonian?

Under the influence of a time-independent Hamiltonian $H$, a state $|\psi\rangle$ will evolve after a time $t$ to the final state $|\psi(t)\rangle=e^{-iH t}|\psi\rangle$, while in the most general ...
6
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2answers
229 views

What are some good quantum computing simulator and visualiser? [duplicate]

I am looking for some good software to simulate quantum computing, visually if possible. I know about quirk (http://algassert.com/quirk) and IBM Q Experience (https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix....
6
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0answers
48 views

Anti-symmetrization on the lattice

Assume, I'm using a system of qubits to simulate a fermionic system. If I'm using the second-quantized formalism (e.g. orbitals in quantum chemistry), the anti-symmetric nature of the fermionic wave ...
5
votes
3answers
691 views

Is it possible to simulate a quantum computer in Virtual Reality? If yes, how?

There have been a couple of simulations already made and I recently saw this high performance, hardware accelerated quantum computer simulator QCGPU and started to wonder about how to simulate quantum ...
5
votes
2answers
463 views

Is there any online Bloch sphere simulator?

While writing this answer I realized it would be really helpful if I could show the OP a video or .gif of how qubit states in Bloch spheres transform under certain unitary operations. I googled up a ...
5
votes
1answer
85 views

Where does the Xmon simulator from Googles cirq framework its entropy from?

Measurements create entropy as we all know. But computers themselves are deterministic machines. Most devices use processor heat as a source for random number generation as far as I know - which has ...
5
votes
1answer
116 views

Which QC platform is better to use on HPC cluster?

I have a HPC (High Performance Computing) cluster with NVIDIA GPU and Xeon CPU partitions. Is this simulator list complete? Which do you recommended to use on a HPC cluster? Will it increase the ...
5
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0answers
82 views

Application of classical approximate optimization algorithm to bottlenecks of quantum computing

According to J. Gough, one of the bottlenecks in the current development of large-scale quantum computing may be the lack of our ability to simulate large scale quantum system, which is a NP-hard ...
5
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0answers
277 views

Error: Simulation of “Quantum algorithm for linear systems of equations” for $4\times 4$ systems on Quirk (without SWAP) - Global phase

Following @DaftWullie's answer I tried to simulate the circuit given in Fig. 4 of the paper (arXiv pre-print): Quantum circuit design for solving linear systems of equations (Cao et al, 2012), on ...
4
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2answers
208 views

Why can't a quantum computer strongly simulate itself?

We can strongly simulate a quantum circuit if we can estimate the probability of measuring $|0^n\rangle$, say, at the end to within some fixed relative error. Now, by measurement, a quantum ...
4
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3answers
224 views

Why is there a difference between the simulation results and the actual quantum computer results?

I ran the Grover's Algorithm for 3 Qubits on the IBM Q platform (ibmqx4) and the results of the simulation and the actual computer differ a lot. The screenshots of the circuit and the results are ...
4
votes
3answers
104 views

How to create an Ising coupling gate with Qiskit?

I'm trying to apply a time evolution algorithm for a physical system I'm trying to simulate on QISkit, however, in order to do that, I need to use the so-called Ising coupling gate: $I=\begin{pmatrix}...
4
votes
1answer
54 views

Creating .gifs corresponding to Quirk simulations

Craig Gidney's blog has some .gifs which directly link to the corresponding simulation on Quirk. For example: Grover Search Delayed Eraser Is it possible to create these .gifs from within Quirk? Or ...
4
votes
1answer
287 views

How can noise on a device be simulated using measured noise parameters?

The real devices used as backends for Qiskit have calibration data that quantifies errors ($T_1$ and $T_2$, gate fidelities, etc). This can be accessed by, for example ...
4
votes
1answer
58 views

How to selectively apply noise in Qiskit simulations?

In Qiskit it is possible to specify noise models to apply to simulations. This allows noise to be defined for certain operations, like measurement or each type of gate. Is it also possible to change ...
4
votes
1answer
120 views

How to implement NM Algorithm for Variational Quantum Eigensolver?

First of all: thanks for reading again. I appreciate the feedback I have gotten from this community the past weeks as I started to feel ready to ask questions about quantum computing topics. I am ...
4
votes
2answers
288 views

How many qubits are simulable with a normal computer and freely accessible simulators?

I want to simulate an arbitrary isolated quantum circuit acting on $n$ qubits (i.e. a pure state of $n$ qubits). As I know RAM is the bottleneck for quantum simulators, you can consider a "normal" ...
4
votes
1answer
136 views

Unitary gate(s) from product of exponent

Often unitary gates are defined as a product of exponentials, with some parameter in the power-term. However, often it is not clear how to construct unitary gates from it, at least not for me that is. ...
4
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0answers
36 views

What is the current research status in simulating many-particle systems from first principles?

There is a huge gap between basic physical laws and predicting many particle systems from first principles. It will be so amazing if we can predict most properties of many particle systems (from mass ...
4
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0answers
45 views

How to determine the minimum number of experiments needed to compute m-many k-local Pauli expectations?

Say I have an algorithm over N qubits and I want to find the expectation value of an operator $O$ composed of a sum of mterms, each of which is the tensor product of some number of single-qubit Pauli ...
4
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0answers
64 views

Simulating quantum computers using anyon braiding

I am new to the concept of topological quantum computation (TQC). Recently I have been thinking about simulating a quantum computer on a classical computer. I know that if I use merely the unitary ...
4
votes
1answer
91 views

Numerical quantum state tomography simulator

On a classical computer, I want to simulate a learning-based quantum state tomography of a qubit. We can formulate it as finding a parametrized unitary evolution that takes the unknown pure state to a ...
4
votes
2answers
224 views

Finding the maximum number of Q# simulatable qubits

I'm new to Q# and I was curious on how one would find the number of Q# simulatable qubits for a specific machine. I know Microsoft has an approximation of 16GB ~ 30 qubits but I wanted a better ...
3
votes
1answer
96 views

Reversible Circuit Simulation (for classical tests of quantum subroutines)

Problem: trying to implement and test quantum subroutines on quantum simulators I run into multiple challenges: Quantum simulation is a very hard problem: a very low number of simulated qubits is ...
3
votes
1answer
121 views

For CNOT gate with control qubit set to 1, the measured state of the second qubit unexpectedly depends on the measurement

I have the following circuit in qiskit. It is a simple CNOT operation with the control qubit set to 1, by running the control qubit through an X-gate. However, when I measure the 2nd qubit, I get the ...
3
votes
1answer
66 views

Could we use varying voltage with programmable gates?

One of the benefits I'm reading about qubits is that they can be in an infinite number of states. I'm aware of Holevo's bound (even though I don't fully understand it). However, it made me think of ...