Questions tagged [quantum-state]

Quantum systems can mathematically be described by their 'quantum state'. When the system is closed/isolated, the state is 'pure' and can be written as a sum (i.e. 'superposition') of basis vectors. When the system is a subsystem of an open system, the state is instead usually 'mixed' and cannot be written as a pure state, so has to be written as a density matrix. Consider using the density-matrix tag when relevant

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30
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4answers
9k views

What is meant by the term "computational basis"?

What is meant by the term "computational basis" in the context of quantum computing and quantum algorithms?
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Quantum machine learning after Ewin Tang

Recently, a series of research papers have been released (this, this and this, also this) that provide classical algorithms with the same runtime as quantum machine learning algorithms for the same ...
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How does measurement of one qubit affect the others?

To represent a quantum computer's state, all the qubits contribute to one state vector (this is one of the major differences between quantum and classical computing as I understand it). My ...
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What's the difference between a pure and mixed quantum state?

As per my limited understanding, a pure state is the quantum state where we have exact information about the quantum system. And the mixed state is the combination of probabilities of the information ...
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What is the difference between a relative phase and a global phase? In particular, what is a phase?

I know that $re^{i\theta} = x + iy$ for any complex number $x + iy$ by Euler's formula. How do you calculate relative and global phase?
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What is the difference between superpositions and mixed states?

My understanding so far is: a pure state is a basic state of a system, and a mixed state represents uncertainty about the system, i.e. the system is in one of a set of states with some (classical) ...
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How can I build a circuit to generate an equal superposition of 3 outcomes for 2 qubits?

Given a $2$ qubit-system and thus $4$ possible measurements results in the basis $\{|00\rangle$, $|01\rangle$, $|10\rangle$, $|11\rangle\}$, how can I prepare the state, where: only $3$ of these $4$ ...
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Density matrices for pure states and mixed states

What is the motivation behind density matrices? And, what is the difference between the density matrices of pure states and density matrices of mixed states? This is a self-answered sequel to What&#...
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3answers
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What are magic states?

I wonder what are magic states, and a magic state gadget. While I'm reading a paper, these terms frequently appear.
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Significance of The Church of the Higher Hilbert space

The term "Church of the Higher Hilbert Space" is used in quantum information frequently when analysing quantum channels and quantum states. What does this term mean (or, alternately, what does the ...
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Quantum states are unit vectors... with respect to which norm?

The most general definition of a quantum state I found is (rephrasing the definition from Wikipedia) Quantum states are represented by a ray in a finite- or infinite-dimensional Hilbert space over ...
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Alternative to Bloch sphere to represent a single qubit

In order to represent the single qubit $|\psi\rangle$ we use an unitary vector in a $\mathbb{C}^2$ Hilbert space whose (one of the) orthonormal base is $(|0\rangle, |1\rangle)$. We can draw $|\psi\...
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1answer
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No-cloning theorem and distinguishing between two non-orthogonal quantum states

I'm currently reading Nielsen and Chuang's Quantum Computation and Quantum Information and I'm not sure if I correctly understand this exercise (on page 57) : Exercise 1.2: Explain how a device which,...
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How to calculate circuit depth properly?

Is the circuit depth the longest sequence of gates applied on one of the qubits? Or is it something more complicated?
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Why does the "Phase Kickback" mechanism work in the Quantum phase estimation algorithm?

I've probably read the chapter The quantum Fourier transform and its applications from Nielsen and Chuang (10 th anniversary edition) a couple of times before and this took this thing for granted, but ...
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2answers
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How to input 2 qubits in 2 Hadamard gates?

Let's say we have a circuit with $2$ Hadamard gates: Let's take the $|00\rangle$ state as input. The vector representation of $|00\rangle$ state is $[1 \ 0 \ 0 \ 0]$, but this is the representation ...
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Why are half angles used in the Bloch sphere representation of qubits?

Suppose we have a single qubit with state $| \psi \rangle = \alpha | 0 \rangle + \beta | 1 \rangle$. We know that $|\alpha|^2 + |\beta|^2 = 1$, so we can write $| \alpha | = \cos(\theta)$, $| \beta | ...
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How to compactly represent multiple qubit states?

Since access to quantum devices capable of quantum computing is still extremely limited, it is of interest to simulate quantum computations on a classical computer. Representing the state of $n$ ...
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Is it true to say that one qubit in an entangled state can instantaneously affect all others?

When a qubit is measured, there is a ‘collapse of the wave-function’ as a result is randomly chosen. If the qubit is entangled with others, this collapse will also effect them. And the way it affects ...
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1answer
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How can we keep Schrödinger's cat alive?

We know, Schrödinger's cat inside the box is in the equal superposition state of both alive and dead. We can express its state as $$|\text{cat}_\phi\rangle= \frac{|\text{alive}\rangle+e^{i\phi}|\text{...
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How do the probabilities of each state change after a transformation of a quantum gate?

Quantum gates are represented by matrices, which represent the transformations applied to qubits (states). Suppose we have some quantum gate which operates on $2$ qubits. How does the quantum gate ...
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2answers
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What makes quantum computations different from randomized classical computations?

One of the many thing that confuse me in the field of QC is what makes the measurement of a qubit in a quantum computer any different than just choosing at random (in a classical computer) (that's not ...
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Representation of real numbers in quantum computers

In classical binary computers, real numbers are often represented using the IEEE 754 standard. With quantum computers you can of course do this as well - and for measurements this (or a similar ...
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General construction of $W_n$-state

Two of the most well known entangled states are the GHZ-state $|\psi\rangle = 1/\sqrt{2}\left( |0\rangle^{\otimes n} + |1\rangle^{\otimes n}\right)$ and the $W_n$-state, with $W_3 = 1/\sqrt{3}\left(|...
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What are min and max overlaps of a maximally entangled state with a separable state?

Let $A,B$ be Hilbert spaces of dimension $d$. Let $\rho$ be some separable quantum state of the composite system $AB$. Given a maximally entangled state: $$\vert\phi\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{d}}\sum_{i=...
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What are the possible ways to visualise large, entangled states?

What are the prominent visualizations used to depict large, entangled states and in what context are they most commonly applied? What are their advantages and disadvantages?
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How do you rotate a Fock state qubit?

I read that a qubit can be encoded in a Fock state, such as the presence or absence of a photon. How do you perform single qubit rotations on Fock states?
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Is acting with a positive map on a state not part of a larger system allowed?

In the comments to a question I asked recently, there is a discussion between user1271772 and myself on positive operators. I know that for a positive trace-preserving operator $\Lambda$ (e.g. the ...
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Does quantum computing already possess the level of abstraction to be explicable even without knowledge of physics?

Currently, quantum computer science (in contrast to classical computer science) can mostly only be understood if one has a good inside knowledge of physics, or more precisely quantum physics. Only ...
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1answer
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Embedding classical information into norm of a quantum state

According to An introduction to quantum machine learning (Schuld, Sinayskiy & Petruccione, 2014), Seth Lloyd et al. say in their paper: Quantum algorithms for supervised and unsupervised machine ...
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Imperfect Quantum Copying

It is known by the no-cloning theorem that constructing a machine that is able to clone an arbitrary quantum state is impossible. However, if the copying is assumed not to be perfect, then universal ...
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State produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC)

I'm researching SPDC's efficacy for use in an optical quantum computing model and I've been trying to figure out exactly what state the photons are in when they come out (as represented by a vector, ...
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1answer
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Sampling random circuits vs Solovay-Kitaev compiler

Suppose I want to obtain a gate sequence representing a particular 1 qubit unitary matrix. The gate set is represented by a discrete universal set, e.g. Clifford+T gates or $\{T,H\}$ gates. A well ...
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How and why does swap test works?

I am having some trouble understanding why a SWAP test would work. I meant I read that and understood the concepts as follows: If the two input states are equal, the output register always results in ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between a qubit and a quantum state?

In general, a qubit is mathematically represented as a quantum state of the form $\lvert \psi\rangle = \alpha \lvert 0\rangle + \beta \lvert 1\rangle$, using the basis $\{ \lvert 0\rangle, \lvert 1\...
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Why do we have to uncompute rather than simply set registers to zero?

In implementing a quantum subroutine it is important to uncompute temporary registers after use, to ensure the output state of the subroutine is not entangled with them (which would affect its ...
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CNOT Gate on Entangled Qubits

I was trying to generate Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state for $N$ states using quantum computing, starting with $|000...000\rangle$ (N times) The proposed solution is to first apply Hadamard ...
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1answer
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Is there an efficient circuit implementing the unitary $U|x\rangle|0\rangle=|x\rangle\Big(\sqrt{1 - x/2^n}\,|0\rangle+\sqrt{x/2^n}|1\rangle\Big)?$

Given an $n$-qubit register $|x\rangle$, does there exist an efficient circuit implementing unitary operation $U$ such that $$U |x\rangle|0\rangle = |x\rangle\Big(\sqrt{1 - x/2^n}\, |0\rangle + \sqrt{...
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On the distribution of the fidelity of a random product state with an arbitrary many-qubit state

Consider an arbitrary $n$-qubit state $\lvert \psi \rangle$. How much do we understand about the probability distribution of the fidelity of $\lvert \psi \rangle$ with a tensor product $\lvert \alpha \...
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How to check if a matrix is a valid density matrix?

What conditions must a matrix hold to be considered a valid density matrix?
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How can I calculate the inner product of two quantum registers of different sizes?

I found an algorithm that can compute the distance of two quantum states. It is based on a subroutine known as swap test (a fidelity estimator or inner product of two state, btw I don't understand ...
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2answers
946 views

Optimal strategy to a quantum state game

Consider the following game: I flip a fair coin, and depending on the outcome (either heads/tails), I'll give you one of the following states: $$|0\rangle \text{ or } \cos(x)|0\rangle + \sin(x)|1\...
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1answer
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Does the trace distance have a geometric interpretation?

Consider the trace distance between two quantum states $\rho,\sigma$, defined via $$D(\rho,\sigma)=\frac12\operatorname{Tr}|\rho-\sigma|,$$ where $|A|\equiv\sqrt{A^\dagger A}$. When $\rho$ and $\sigma$...
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What do the off-diagonal elements of a density matrix physically represent?

For simplicity, let's take a density matrix for a single qubit, written in the $\{|0\rangle,|1\rangle\}$ basis: $$ \rho = \begin{pmatrix} \rho_{00} & \rho_{01} \\ \rho_{10}^* & 1-\rho_{00} \...
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How to show that an n-level system is entangled?

"How do I show that a two-qubit state is an entangled state?" includes an answer which references the Peres–Horodecki criterion. This works for $2\times 2$ and $2\times3$ dimensional cases; however, ...
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What does it mean for a density matrix to "act on a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}"$?

For a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}_A$, I have seen the phrase density matrices acting on $\mathcal{H}_A$ multiple times, e.g. here. It is clear to me that if $\mathcal{H}_A$ has finite Hilbert ...
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How to efficiently calculate the inverse of a Kronecker product?

This is a follow-up question to a previous question I had, where the correct answer was to use the Kronecker product. Given, for example, a vector representing two qubits $$\begin{bmatrix}0 \\ 1 \\ 0 \...
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2answers
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What is intuition for the trace distance between quantum states?

Given two mixed states $\rho$ and $\sigma$, the trace distance between the states is defined by $\sum_{i=1}^n |\lambda_i|$, where $\lambda_i$'s are eigenvalues of $\rho - \sigma$. I know the ...
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1answer
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How to distinguish between collapsed and uncertain qubits in a quantum circuit?

I have been through the Young's double slit experiment. It's a direct proof or instance of showing that a wave is collapsed via observation or measurement, and shows no interference patterns. I want ...
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Superposition of quantum gates

In the standard model of quantum computation a gate is a unitary that acts on a subsystem. Physically, it can be implemented by some device. Now, any device is also a part of our quantum world, thus ...

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