# Questions tagged [quantum-state]

Quantum systems can mathematically be described by their 'quantum state'. When the system is closed/isolated, the state is 'pure' and can be written as a sum (i.e. 'superposition') of basis vectors. When the system is a subsystem of an open system, the state is instead usually 'mixed' and cannot be written as a pure state, so has to be written as a density matrix. Consider using the density-matrix tag when relevant

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### Postselection and hardness of estimating amplitudes

Let $A$ be a class of quantum circuits such that \begin{equation} \text{Post}A = \text{Post}BQP, \end{equation} where $\text{Post}$ indicates post-selection. Is only this amount of information ...
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### Encoding bosonic degrees of freedom

A well-known way of encoding $N$ levels of a harmonic (bosonic) oscillator is as follows: \begin{equation} |n\rangle = |1\rangle^{\otimes n} \otimes |0\rangle^{\otimes N-n+1} \quad,\qquad ...
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### How exactly is the stated composite state of the two registers being produced using the $R_{zz}$ controlled rotations?

This is a sequel to How are two different registers being used as "control"? I found the following quantum circuit given in Fig 5 (page 6) of the same paper i.e. Quantum Circuit Design for ...
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### Permutation invariant states have permutation invariant purifications - proof?

I don't remember where I came across the statement but I'm pretty sure it is true and am interested in understanding why it holds. For any $n-$ register state $\rho^n \in H^{\otimes n}$ that is ...
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### Preparation of states that correspond to efficiently integrable probability distributions

I have been trying to implement methods from paper Creating superpositions that correspond to efficiently integrable probability distributions by Grover and Rudolph. It is stated that there exists an ...
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### Understanding shared Bell states from quantum entanglement

I'm trying to understand an entanglement swapping derivation provided in this PDF (pages 2 - 3) I have several things about this process that I don't understand, and I was hoping someone could ...
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### How to define initial state $\rvert \Psi(0) \rangle \equiv \rvert 1, -1 \rangle \otimes \rvert 0 \rangle_{\text{cav}}$ of a system in QuTiP?

Say, we have a $\require{mhchem}\ce{^87Rb}$ atom having an electric dipole transition on the $D_{1}$ line and we have two hyperfine ground states, one on $F = 1$ and one on $F = 2$ level. So, we take ...
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### Synchronous Interactions Between Quantum and Macroscopic Systems

Synchronous Interactions Between Quantum and Macroscopic Systems Lester Ingber This project calculates synchronous quantum systems and macroscopic systems with well-defined interactions. I would ...
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### States of a qubit in a DC-SQUID

Does anybody of you know what are the two states $|0\rangle$ and $|1\rangle$ of a qubit in a DC-SQUID (2 Josephson junctions in a loop)?
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