Questions tagged [quantum-optics]

A branch of atomic, molecular, and optical physics dealing with how individual quanta of light, known as photons, interact with atoms and molecules. It includes the study of the particle-like properties of photons.

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Diagonal elements of the transition dipole moment

I'm currently doing some work in Quantum Optics and now have a question about the transition dipole moment. We were told in class that the off-diagonal elements of this matrix, namely $\langle n|d|m\...
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Does the entanglement have the conventional meaning in optical interferometers?

Let's consider a two-mode quantum state described in Fock state. A N00N state can be written as $|\psi _{{\text{NOON}}}\rangle ={\frac {|N\rangle _{a}|0\rangle _{b}+e^{{iN\theta }}|{0}\rangle _{a}|{N}...
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How to interpret photon number 'gates' in quantum circuit?

Peng et. al. Describe a circuit for entanglement cloning (i.e. entanglement broadcasting) which on its own looks fairly straightforward: Confusingly however, the gates $U_1$ and $U_2$ are not logical ...
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What are the measurement operators $F_k$ corresponding to a homodyne measurement?

By definition, a measurement is characterized by a set of positive-semidefinite matrices $\{F_k\}$ satisfying the completeness relation $\sum_k F_k = \textbf{I}$. I am interested in knowing how does ...
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How to write the covariance matrix of a quantum gaussian state as a function of photon numbers?

Assume having a one-mode quantum Gaussian state with quadrature observable vector $\hat r = [\hat q , \hat p ] $ and covariance matrix $\sigma$. According to definition [1]: \begin{equation} \sigma = \...
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How are two photons entangled in the Xanadu computer?

I was recently reading about how Xanadu made a scalable, room-temperature-operating quantum computer using photons as qubits (see this link). It said that in the logic gates, it entangles two photons ...
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How to connect the idea of inner product, outer product, matrix element in 3 level composite system?

I was solving steady state solution given by Lindblad equation, and I got stuck on the calculation part like what will be the value of $\langle e, 0|b, 0\rangle$? And how should I rewrite $|d, 0\...
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Comparing technical limitations of major quantum computing approaches

As far as I know, major quantum computing approaches include superconducting qubits, trapped ions, nuclear magnetic resonance qubits, and free space quantum optics. I guess two main technical ...
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How is this expression for a GHZ state obtained in the nature paper by Pan et al. (2000)?

Can someone tell me how the authors of the paper "Experimental test of quantum nonlocality" (Nature link to abstract) have rewritten their equation 1 in terms of equation 2 and 3?
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What is an electro-optic switch?

I found an implementation of a CNOT in photonic QC and I just couldn't find any info on a component named "electro-optic switch" What does it do exactly? How does it work? The ...
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Why is a state Gaussian if and only if its covariance matrix satisfies $\boldsymbol\sigma+i\boldsymbol\Omega\ge0$?

Let $\rho$ be a Gaussian state, described by the $2N\times 2N$ covariance matrix $\newcommand{\bs}[1]{{\boldsymbol{#1}}}\bs\sigma$. Denote with $\bs\Omega$ the $N$-mode symplectic form associated with ...
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In (O'Brien et al. 2004), why is the target qubit not affected when the control is $\vert 0\rangle$?

I'm currently reading this paper https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0403062 but I fail to understand how the input of the control qubit affects the output of the target qubit. I do understand that when ...
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Why do we use 'modes' in quantum optics?

In this material, it gives the definition of modes: The modes are basically defined by the properties of coherence and orthogonality: modes are orthogonal solutions of the wave equation. Since the ...
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How to build a single-photon emitter at home

Hey any of you people know if it's possible to make a DIY single-photon emitter? I've been searching for an answer for quite some time now and all I've come across that's helpful is this: https://www....
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How is measurement performed on a stream of polarized photons?

Is it possible to use a simple laser to measure qubits in optical quantum computers, or is a single-photon emitter absolutely necessary? If you can do it with a simple laser, how would you go about ...
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What are spin-coherent states?

Trying to understand the paper; https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.02577.pdf and ran into "spin-coherent" states. I wonder those are.
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After a photon passes through the phase shifter, does it gain the geometric phase or dynamical phase?

In Quantum Mechanics, the phase can be divided into geometric phase and dynamical phase. In mach-zehnder interferometer, after the photon passes through the phase shifter, what kind of phase does it ...
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Why does joint ground state not change under action of beam splitting unitary operator?

How can one show that $\hat{U}|00\rangle=|00\rangle$ where $\hat{U}=e^{-igt(\hat{a}^\dagger_2\hat{a}_1+\hat{a}^\dagger_1\hat{a}_2)}$ and $|00\rangle$ is the unique joint zero eigenstate of the ...
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Sidebands in spin-oscillator coupled devices

I am researching spin-oscillator hybrid devices (particularly those coupled to NV centers), and I have come across this paper investigating the strain field of a cantilever and its effect on the NV ...
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Solution for the "Input and Output theory" for circuit/cavity-QED Quantum Architecture [closed]

This question consists of the basic calculations which are often referred to as "trivial" in most references in circuit-QED. However, are not so trivial for anyone who starts fresh into the ...
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How is the third-order autocorrelation measured in quantum optics?

The third order autocorrelation is defined as $$\bar g^{(3)} = \frac{\langle \hat a^\dagger \hat a^\dagger\hat a^\dagger \hat a\hat a\hat a\rangle}{\bar n^3}.$$ How is this quantity measured in ...
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Relation between Wigner quasi-probabability distribution and statistical second-moment

Is there any relation between the Wigner quasi-probability distribution function $W$ and the statistical second-moment (also known as covariance matrix) of a density matrix of a continuous variable ...
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How do we restrict to a limited number of dimensions, say 3 for qutrits, while using OAM states of light?

When a azimuthal phase $\mathrm{e}^{il\phi}$ is applied to gaussian beams having plane wavefront, they develop a corkscrew sort of structure and therefore possess an orbital angular momentum in ...
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Shor's Code: Understanding how it satisfies Knill Laflamme Theorem

I'm new to Quantum Error Correction, and I have a question on Shor's Code. If we have a protected subspace, $V \subset \mathbf{C}^2\otimes \cdots \otimes \mathbf{C}^2$ $V=\operatorname{span}\{|0_{...
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