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Questions tagged [quantum-operation]

For questions about quantum channels or more generally quantum maps and the related formalism. For questions about unitary operations, please use quantum-gate instead.

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If all quantum gates must be unitary, what about measurement?

All quantum operations must be unitary to allow reversibility, but what about measurement? Measurement can be represented as a matrix, and that matrix is applied to qubits, so that seems equivalent to ...
auden's user avatar
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22 votes
2 answers
3k views

Significance of The Church of the Higher Hilbert space

The term "Church of the Higher Hilbert Space" is used in quantum information frequently when analysing quantum channels and quantum states. What does this term mean (or, alternately, what does the ...
user3483902's user avatar
20 votes
1 answer
6k views

Twirling Quantum Channels: Pauli and Clifford Twirling

I am currently working through some papers related with approximations of more general quantum channels such as amplitude and phase damping channels to Pauli channels. The reason to do so is so that ...
Josu Etxezarreta Martinez's user avatar
15 votes
2 answers
562 views

Does higher channel fidelity imply higher entanglement fidelity?

Consider two noisy quantum channels (CPTP maps), $\Phi_1^A$ and $\Phi_2^A$, acting on a system $A$. Suppose that for any pure state $\left|\psi\right>\in \mathcal H_A$, $$ F\big(\psi, \Phi_1^A(\psi)...
UncertainTea's user avatar
14 votes
3 answers
877 views

Is acting with a positive map on a state not part of a larger system allowed?

In the comments to a question I asked recently, there is a discussion between user1271772 and myself on positive operators. I know that for a positive trace-preserving operator $\Lambda$ (e.g. the ...
Quantum spaghettification's user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
2k views

How does the vectorization map relate to the Choi and Kraus representations of a channel?

I know that the Choi operator is a useful tool to construct the Kraus representation of a given map, and that the vectorization map plays an important role in such construction. How exactly does the ...
Tobias Fritzn's user avatar
11 votes
3 answers
4k views

What is the "Stinespring Dilation"?

I've consulted Nielsen and Chuang to understand the Stinespring Dilation, but wasn't able to find anything useful. How does this operation relate to partial trace, Kraus operators, and purification?
Jimit Bavishi's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
2k views

What is the relationship between Choi and Chi matrix in Qiskit?

I'm struggling with the framework for quantum process tomography on Qiskit. The final step of such a framework is running fit method of ...
Daniele Cuomo's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
972 views

How does the invertibility of a quantum map reflect on its Kraus operators?

Consider a quantum map $\Phi\in\mathrm T(\mathcal X)$, that is, a linear operator $\Phi:\mathrm{Lin}(\mathcal X)\to\mathrm{Lin}(\mathcal X)$ for some finite-dimensional complex vector spaces $\mathcal ...
glS's user avatar
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10 votes
4 answers
2k views

Why does the twirl of a quantum channel give a depolarizing channel?

I would like to understand in detail why the twirl of a quantum channel gives depolarizing channel, which is the starting point of randomized benchmarking. To be self-contained, let me set up the ...
fagd's user avatar
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10 votes
1 answer
337 views

Proof of an Holevo information inequality for a classical-classical-quantum channel

Suppose I have a classical-classical-quantum channel $W : \mathcal{X}\times\mathcal{Y} \rightarrow \mathcal{D}(\mathcal{H})$, where $\mathcal{X},\mathcal{Y}$ are finite sets and $\mathcal{D}(\mathcal{...
Stephen Diadamo's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
311 views

How does the number of copies affect the diamond distance?

Suppose we are given two maps $\Phi$ and $\Psi$ such that $$\|\Phi-\Psi\|_{\diamond}\leqslant\varepsilon.$$ What can we say about $\left\|\Phi^{\otimes t}-\Psi^{\otimes t}\right\|_{\diamond}$? Is it ...
Tristan Nemoz's user avatar
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10 votes
0 answers
100 views

Entanglement-assisted hashing bound for asymmetric depolarizing channels

I reading the paper EXIT-Chart Aided Quantum Code Design Improves the Normalised Throughput of Realistic Quantum Devices, which proposes the use of QTCs in order to do quantum error correction for ...
Josu Etxezarreta Martinez's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
809 views

What is the difference between quantum gates and quantum channels?

I'm not sure if this is a dumb question, since they seem to be very basic building blocks of quantum information theory; however, I can't seem to wrap my head around the difference between the two. As ...
learner1234's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is the Kraus representation of a quantum channel equivalent to a unitary evolution in an enlarged space?

I understand that there are two ways to think about 'general quantum operators'. Way 1 We can think of them as trace-preserving completely positive operators. These can be written in the form $$\...
Quantum spaghettification's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
608 views

Advances in Quantum Channel Capacity

I have been reading about the Quantum Channel Capacity and it seems to be an open problem to find such capacity in general. Quantum capacity is the highest rate at which quantum information can be ...
Josu Etxezarreta Martinez's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
603 views

What channels preserve the purity of all pure inputs?

Consider channels $\Phi$ such that $\Phi(|\psi\rangle\!\langle\psi|)$ is pure for all $|\psi\rangle$. Is there a simple way to characterise channels with this property? Let's suppose $\Phi$ acts ...
glS's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
734 views

How to calculate the average fidelity of an amplitude damping channel

An answer to this question shows how to calculate the average fidelity of a depolarizing channel. How would one go about calculating this for an amplitude dampening channel? I tried working out the ...
Quantum Guy 123's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
538 views

Is there a comprehensive list of counterexamples in quantum information?

As was already asked about in this phys.SE question many years ago---which, sadly, got closed and never received an answer---is there a collection of counterexamples in quantum information theory, &...
Frederik vom Ende's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
513 views

What are the possible Kraus operators of the identity channel?

Consider a Kraus representation $\{A_a\}_a$ of the identity channel $\mathcal{I}$ that maps any state to itself. Of course, $\{A_a\}_a$ are not the simplest Kraus operators, which would just be $\{I\}$...
Shadumu's user avatar
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8 votes
3 answers
1k views

How does the spectral decomposition of the Choi operator relate to Kraus operators?

In Nielsen and Chuang's QCQI, there is a proof states that Theorem 8.1: The map $\mathcal{E}$ satisfies axioms A1, A2 and A3 if and only if $$ \mathcal{E}(\rho)=\sum_{i} E_{i} \rho E_{i}^{\dagger} $$...
Sherlock's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
802 views

Can the Kraus decomposition always be chosen to be a statistical mixture of unitary evolutions?

If $\mathcal{E}$ is a CPTP map between hermitian operators on two Hilbert spaces, then we can find a set of operators $\{K_j\}_j$ such that $$\mathcal{E}(\rho)=\sum_j K_j\rho K_j^\dagger $$ in the ...
user2723984's user avatar
  • 1,066
8 votes
1 answer
87 views

Is there a CPTP map that takes $\rho_{AB}$ to $\rho_A\otimes\rho_B$?

Given some joint state $\rho_{AB}$, one can find either the marginal state $\rho_A$ or the marginal state $\rho_B$ through a CPTP map. The proof being that partial tracing is indeed CPTP. Is a CPTP ...
user1936752's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
460 views

Prove that a channel is close to acting on only one system

Background Suppose I have a quantum channel $\Phi:B(\mathcal{H}_1)\rightarrow B(\mathcal{H}_1)\otimes B(\mathcal{H}_2)$, such that there is some small $\epsilon$ such that for any two input states $\...
Sam Jaques's user avatar
  • 2,044
8 votes
1 answer
142 views

Is LOCC equivalence the same as LU equivalence?

I'm currently learning on LOCC transformations. In the Dur, 2000 paper, there is a statement that (...) two pure states $|\psi\rangle$ and $|\phi\rangle$ can be obtained with certainty from each ...
Steve J.'s user avatar
  • 173
8 votes
1 answer
673 views

What are examples of extremal non-projective POVMs?

Fix some finite-dimensional space $\mathcal X$. Define a POVM as a collection of positive operators summing to the identity: $\mu\equiv \{\mu(a):a\in\Sigma\}\subset{\rm Pos}(\mathcal X)$ such that $\...
glS's user avatar
  • 25k
8 votes
1 answer
2k views

Depolarizing channel implementation on IBM Q

Given a single qubit in the computational basis, $|\psi\rangle =\alpha |0\rangle + \beta|1\rangle$, the density matrix is $\rho=|\psi\rangle\langle\psi|=\begin{pmatrix} \alpha^2 & \alpha \beta^*\\ ...
Mathist's user avatar
  • 495
8 votes
1 answer
1k views

What quantum channels are considered in quantum communication, and how does this choice affect the construction of error correction codes?

The so-called depolarizing channel is the channel model that is mostly used when constructing quantum error correction codes. The action of such channel over a quantum state $\rho$ is $$\rho\...
Josu Etxezarreta Martinez's user avatar
8 votes
4 answers
600 views

Computing $e^x$ on a quantum computer

Does anyone know how to make a quantum circuit to compute exponentials where the exponent can be a fraction? To be more precise, I'm looking for a fixed point quantum arithmetic circuit that does the ...
sheesymcdeezy's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
983 views

Does the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism really establish a connection between kinematics and dynamics?

I understand the mathematical construction of the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism aka channel-state duality. It all makes sense formally, yet I still struggle to grasp its physical (or quantum-...
quantumorsch's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
1k views

What does the adjoint of a channel represent physically?

Given a quantum channel (CPTP map) $\Phi:\mathcal X\to\mathcal Y$, its adjoint is the CPTP map $\Phi^\dagger:\mathcal Y\to\mathcal X$ such that, for all $X\in\mathcal X$ and $Y\in\mathcal Y$, $$\...
glS's user avatar
  • 25k
7 votes
2 answers
4k views

How to find the operator sum representation of the depolarizing channel?

In Nielsen and Chuang (page:379), it is shown that the operator sum representation of a depolarizing channel $\mathcal{E}(\rho) = \frac{pI}{2} + (1-p)\rho$ is easily seen by substituting the identity ...
user1936752's user avatar
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7 votes
3 answers
551 views

Is there a quantum operation whose output is always orthogonal to the input?

I'm trying to show/convince myself the following statement is correct (I haven't been able to find any similar posts): "There is no reversible quantum operation that transforms any input state to a ...
fortymod's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
2k views

Do the Kraus operators of a CPTP channel need to be orthogonal?

Let $\Phi\in\mathrm T(\mathcal X,\mathcal Y)$ be a CPTP map. Any such channel admits a Kraus decomposition of the form $$\Phi(X)=\sum_a A_a X A_a^\dagger,$$ for a set of operators $A_a\in\mathrm{Lin}(\...
glS's user avatar
  • 25k
7 votes
2 answers
427 views

How should we interpret these quantum logic gates as physical observables?

In quantum mechanics each operator corresponds to some physical observable, but say we have the operators $X,Y,Z,H, \operatorname{CNOT}$. I understand how these gates act on qubits, but what do they ...
bhapi's user avatar
  • 869
7 votes
1 answer
2k views

What is the rank of a quantum channel?

I read the following sentence in a paper: We consider a quantum channel $\mathcal{E}_{\omega}(\rho)=\sum_{i=1}^{r} K_{i} \rho K_{i}^{\dagger}$ where $r$ is the rank of the channel. I didn't find the ...
Sherlock's user avatar
  • 695
7 votes
1 answer
206 views

Positive semidefinite relationship after partial trace

Let $\rho_{ABC}$ and $\sigma_{C}$ be arbitrary quantum states and $\lambda\in \mathbb{R}$ be minimal such that $$\rho_{ABC}\leq \lambda \rho_{AB}\otimes\sigma_C$$ We assume there are no issues with ...
JRT's user avatar
  • 522
7 votes
2 answers
1k views

What does it mean to take the Choi-Jamiolkowski of a quantum channel?

The Choi-Jamiolkowski of a channel $\newcommand{\on}[1]{\operatorname{#1}}\Lambda : \on{End}(\mathcal{H_A}) \xrightarrow{} \on{End}(\mathcal{H_B})$ is obtained through an isomorphism of the form: $$ ...
the mmmPodcast's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
400 views

Degradable channels and their quantum capacity

Note: I'm reposting this question as it was deleted by the original author, so that we do not lose out on the existing answer there, by Prof. Watrous. Further answers are obviously welcome. I have ...
Sanchayan Dutta's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
357 views

Quantum channel representation of projective measurement

Let $P$ be a projector and $Q = I-P$ be its complement. How to find probability $p$ and unitaries $U_1, U_2$ such that for any $\rho$, $P\rho P + Q\rho Q = p U_1\rho U_1^\dagger + (1-p)U_2\rho U_2^\...
snsunx's user avatar
  • 303
7 votes
1 answer
3k views

What's the difference between Kraus operators and measurement operators?

It is said in a lecture note[1] by John Preskill that, Equivalently, we may imagine measuring system $B$ in the basis $\{|a\rangle\}$, but failing to record the measurement outcome, so we are ...
Shuai's user avatar
  • 73
7 votes
2 answers
3k views

Deduce the Kraus operators of the dephasing channel using the Choi

I'm trying to deduce the Kraus representation of the dephasing channel using the Choi operator (I know the Kraus operators can be guessed in this case, I want to understand the general case). The ...
user2723984's user avatar
  • 1,066
7 votes
1 answer
415 views

Why does code switching not allow for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation?

In this paper, the authors briefly mention that one proposed method to bypass the Eastin-Knill theorem is to perform code-switching. That is, given codes $C_1$ and $C_2$ which permit a complementary ...
SescoMath's user avatar
  • 507
7 votes
1 answer
443 views

Understanding classical vs. quantum channel capacities

The classical channel capacity ($C_{ea}$) and the quantum channel capacity ($Q$) as defined here (eqs. 1 and 2) are given by \begin{equation} C_{ea} = \text{sup}_{\rho} \Big[S(\rho) + S(\Phi_t \rho) -...
Tobias Fritzn's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
85 views

What is the definition of physical gate error rate?

The fidelity of two quantum states $\rho$ and $\sigma$ is a well-defined (up to discussions about a square): $$ F(\rho, \sigma) = \text{Tr}\left( \sqrt{ \sqrt{\rho} \sigma \sqrt{\rho}}\right)^2. $$ ...
Frederik Ravn Klausen's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
330 views

How are Rigetti and IBM QX device parameters related to Kraus operators?

Rigetti reports the following parameters: (https://www.rigetti.com/qpu) T1, T2* times 1-qubit gate fidelity (F1q) 2-qubit gate fidelity (F2q) and, read-out fidelity (Fro) IBM QX reports the ...
Edifice's user avatar
  • 429
7 votes
2 answers
295 views

Derive phase damping quantum operation

I am reading about the phase damping quantum operation on page 384 of Nielsen & Chuang's Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (10th Anniversary Edition). Nielsen & Chuang derived the ...
Conn-CaoYK's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
49 views

Rotation resolutions in operations for qubits in commercial implementations

I have found information about Honeywell provider supporting operations with high-resolution rotations (i.e. around $\pi/500$) here. What are typical maximal rotation resolution values supported by ...
Mariusz's user avatar
  • 379
7 votes
0 answers
141 views

How does the extremality of a POVM reflect on its Naimark dilation isometry?

Let $\mu:\Sigma\to\mathrm{Pos}(\mathcal X)$ be some POVM, with $\Sigma$ the finite set of possible outcomes, and $\mathrm{Pos}(\mathcal X)$ the set of positive semidefinite operators on a finite-...
glS's user avatar
  • 25k
6 votes
3 answers
399 views

Can a CPTP map increase the purity of a state?

I am wondering if there exist CPTP maps $T$ such that the purity of a quantum state $\rho$ can increase, i.e. $$ \text{tr} ( T ( \rho )^2 ) \geq \text{tr} ( \rho ^2). $$ If so, what are the conditions ...
Rell's user avatar
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