# Questions tagged [quantum-operation]

For questions about quantum channels or more generally quantum maps and the related formalism. For questions about unitary operations, please use quantum-gate instead.

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### If all quantum gates must be unitary, what about measurement?

All quantum operations must be unitary to allow reversibility, but what about measurement? Measurement can be represented as a matrix, and that matrix is applied to qubits, so that seems equivalent to ...
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### Significance of The Church of the Higher Hilbert space

The term "Church of the Higher Hilbert Space" is used in quantum information frequently when analysing quantum channels and quantum states. What does this term mean (or, alternately, what does the ...
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### Twirling Quantum Channels: Pauli and Clifford Twirling

I am currently working through some papers related with approximations of more general quantum channels such as amplitude and phase damping channels to Pauli channels. The reason to do so is so that ...
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### Advances in Quantum Channel Capacity

I have been reading about the Quantum Channel Capacity and it seems to be an open problem to find such capacity in general. Quantum capacity is the highest rate at which quantum information can be ...
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### What channels preserve the purity of all pure inputs?

Consider channels $\Phi$ such that $\Phi(|\psi\rangle\!\langle\psi|)$ is pure for all $|\psi\rangle$. Is there a simple way to characterise channels with this property? Let's suppose $\Phi$ acts ...
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### How to calculate the average fidelity of an amplitude damping channel

An answer to this question shows how to calculate the average fidelity of a depolarizing channel. How would one go about calculating this for an amplitude dampening channel? I tried working out the ...
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### What are the possible Kraus operators of the identity channel?

Consider a Kraus representation $\{A_a\}_a$ of the identity channel $\mathcal{I}$ that maps any state to itself. Of course, $\{A_a\}_a$ are not the simplest Kraus operators, which would just be $\{I\}$...
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### How does the spectral decomposition of the Choi operator relate to Kraus operators?

In Nielsen and Chuang's QCQI, there is a proof states that Theorem 8.1: The map $\mathcal{E}$ satisfies axioms A1, A2 and A3 if and only if $$\mathcal{E}(\rho)=\sum_{i} E_{i} \rho E_{i}^{\dagger}$$...
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### Can the Kraus decomposition always be chosen to be a statistical mixture of unitary evolutions?

If $\mathcal{E}$ is a CPTP map between hermitian operators on two Hilbert spaces, then we can find a set of operators $\{K_j\}_j$ such that $$\mathcal{E}(\rho)=\sum_j K_j\rho K_j^\dagger$$ in the ...
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### Is there a CPTP map that takes $\rho_{AB}$ to $\rho_A\otimes\rho_B$?

Given some joint state $\rho_{AB}$, one can find either the marginal state $\rho_A$ or the marginal state $\rho_B$ through a CPTP map. The proof being that partial tracing is indeed CPTP. Is a CPTP ...
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### How should we interpret these quantum logic gates as physical observables?

In quantum mechanics each operator corresponds to some physical observable, but say we have the operators $X,Y,Z,H, \operatorname{CNOT}$. I understand how these gates act on qubits, but what do they ...
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### What is the rank of a quantum channel?

I read the following sentence in a paper: We consider a quantum channel $\mathcal{E}_{\omega}(\rho)=\sum_{i=1}^{r} K_{i} \rho K_{i}^{\dagger}$ where $r$ is the rank of the channel. I didn't find the ...
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### Positive semidefinite relationship after partial trace

Let $\rho_{ABC}$ and $\sigma_{C}$ be arbitrary quantum states and $\lambda\in \mathbb{R}$ be minimal such that $$\rho_{ABC}\leq \lambda \rho_{AB}\otimes\sigma_C$$ We assume there are no issues with ...
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