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Questions tagged [quantum-operation]

For questions about quantum channels or more generally quantum maps and the related formalism. For questions about unitary operations, please use quantum-gate instead.

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Why does the twirl of a quantum channel give a depolarizing channel?

I would like to understand in detail why the twirl of a quantum channel gives depolarizing channel, which is the starting point of randomized benchmarking. To be self-contained, let me set up the ...
fagd's user avatar
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13 votes
1 answer
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How does the vectorization map relate to the Choi and Kraus representations of a channel?

I know that the Choi operator is a useful tool to construct the Kraus representation of a given map, and that the vectorization map plays an important role in such construction. How exactly does the ...
Tobias Fritzn's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
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What is the relationship between Choi and Chi matrix in Qiskit?

I'm struggling with the framework for quantum process tomography on Qiskit. The final step of such a framework is running fit method of ...
Daniele Cuomo's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
4k views

How to find the operator sum representation of the depolarizing channel?

In Nielsen and Chuang (page:379), it is shown that the operator sum representation of a depolarizing channel $\mathcal{E}(\rho) = \frac{pI}{2} + (1-p)\rho$ is easily seen by substituting the identity ...
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6 votes
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What are examples of the correspondence between channels and their Stinespring dilations?

In this post I read that "quantum measurements are special cases of quantum channels (CPTP maps). Stinespring's dilation states that any quantum channel is realized by partial tracing a unitary ...
Naima's user avatar
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4 votes
4 answers
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Can a Kraus representation act as the identity on any operator?

In the textbook “Quantum Computation and Quantum Information” by Nielsen and Chuang, it is stated that there exists a set of unitaries $U_i$ and a probability distribution $p_i$ for any matrix A, $$\...
Amplituhedron's user avatar
39 votes
8 answers
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If all quantum gates must be unitary, what about measurement?

All quantum operations must be unitary to allow reversibility, but what about measurement? Measurement can be represented as a matrix, and that matrix is applied to qubits, so that seems equivalent to ...
auden's user avatar
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20 votes
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Twirling Quantum Channels: Pauli and Clifford Twirling

I am currently working through some papers related with approximations of more general quantum channels such as amplitude and phase damping channels to Pauli channels. The reason to do so is so that ...
Josu Etxezarreta Martinez's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
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Is the Kraus representation of a quantum channel equivalent to a unitary evolution in an enlarged space?

I understand that there are two ways to think about 'general quantum operators'. Way 1 We can think of them as trace-preserving completely positive operators. These can be written in the form $$\...
Quantum spaghettification's user avatar
11 votes
3 answers
4k views

What is the "Stinespring Dilation"?

I've consulted Nielsen and Chuang to understand the Stinespring Dilation, but wasn't able to find anything useful. How does this operation relate to partial trace, Kraus operators, and purification?
Jimit Bavishi's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
734 views

How to calculate the average fidelity of an amplitude damping channel

An answer to this question shows how to calculate the average fidelity of a depolarizing channel. How would one go about calculating this for an amplitude dampening channel? I tried working out the ...
Quantum Guy 123's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
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What does the adjoint of a channel represent physically?

Given a quantum channel (CPTP map) $\Phi:\mathcal X\to\mathcal Y$, its adjoint is the CPTP map $\Phi^\dagger:\mathcal Y\to\mathcal X$ such that, for all $X\in\mathcal X$ and $Y\in\mathcal Y$, $$\...
glS's user avatar
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Deduce the Kraus operators of the dephasing channel using the Choi

I'm trying to deduce the Kraus representation of the dephasing channel using the Choi operator (I know the Kraus operators can be guessed in this case, I want to understand the general case). The ...
user2723984's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
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Do the Kraus operators of a CPTP channel need to be orthogonal?

Let $\Phi\in\mathrm T(\mathcal X,\mathcal Y)$ be a CPTP map. Any such channel admits a Kraus decomposition of the form $$\Phi(X)=\sum_a A_a X A_a^\dagger,$$ for a set of operators $A_a\in\mathrm{Lin}(\...
glS's user avatar
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What does it mean to take the Choi-Jamiolkowski of a quantum channel?

The Choi-Jamiolkowski of a channel $\newcommand{\on}[1]{\operatorname{#1}}\Lambda : \on{End}(\mathcal{H_A}) \xrightarrow{} \on{End}(\mathcal{H_B})$ is obtained through an isomorphism of the form: $$ ...
the mmmPodcast's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
2k views

What is the "complementary map" of a channel with given Kraus decomposition?

I have a quantum map described by the following Kraus operators $$A_0 = c_0 \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 0\\ 0 & 1 \end{pmatrix}, \qquad A_1 = c_1 \begin{pmatrix} ...
Tobias Fritzn's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
574 views

Simulate a quantum channel with a certain fidelity

I am looking for an easy-to-use framework for simulating a quantum channel that can accept the desired average fidelity of the channel as input. For example, if I want a channel with 98% average ...
Quantum Guy 123's user avatar
14 votes
3 answers
877 views

Is acting with a positive map on a state not part of a larger system allowed?

In the comments to a question I asked recently, there is a discussion between user1271772 and myself on positive operators. I know that for a positive trace-preserving operator $\Lambda$ (e.g. the ...
Quantum spaghettification's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
603 views

What channels preserve the purity of all pure inputs?

Consider channels $\Phi$ such that $\Phi(|\psi\rangle\!\langle\psi|)$ is pure for all $|\psi\rangle$. Is there a simple way to characterise channels with this property? Let's suppose $\Phi$ acts ...
glS's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is there a CPTP map that takes $\rho_{AB}$ to $\rho_A\otimes\rho_B$?

Given some joint state $\rho_{AB}$, one can find either the marginal state $\rho_A$ or the marginal state $\rho_B$ through a CPTP map. The proof being that partial tracing is indeed CPTP. Is a CPTP ...
user1936752's user avatar
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How does the spectral decomposition of the Choi operator relate to Kraus operators?

In Nielsen and Chuang's QCQI, there is a proof states that Theorem 8.1: The map $\mathcal{E}$ satisfies axioms A1, A2 and A3 if and only if $$ \mathcal{E}(\rho)=\sum_{i} E_{i} \rho E_{i}^{\dagger} $$...
Sherlock's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
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Depolarizing channel implementation on IBM Q

Given a single qubit in the computational basis, $|\psi\rangle =\alpha |0\rangle + \beta|1\rangle$, the density matrix is $\rho=|\psi\rangle\langle\psi|=\begin{pmatrix} \alpha^2 & \alpha \beta^*\\ ...
Mathist's user avatar
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1 answer
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How does the Kraus decomposition imply the Stinespring representation?

To show that the Kraus decomposition $\Phi(\rho)=\sum_{k=1}^D M_k\rho_S M_k^\dagger$ implies the Stinespring form $$\Phi(\rho)=\text{tr}_E[U_{SE}(\rho_S\otimes|0\rangle\langle 0|_E)U_{SE}^\dagger]$$ ...
user15135's user avatar
  • 165
3 votes
1 answer
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What is the standard noise channel that is applied in simulations?

I know there are various quantum noise channels, which include the depolarizing channel, the dephasing channel and the bit-flip channel; We can apply them in simulators easily. However, is there any ...
Henry_Fordham's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
301 views

Unambiguous discrimination using POVM with highest discriminate probability

I was studying Nielsen&Chuang's textbook (about page 92), and come up with a question that I cannot solve it. Given one of the two state $|\psi_1\rangle=|0\rangle$ and $|\psi_2\rangle=\frac{1}{\...
Shara's user avatar
  • 165
2 votes
1 answer
179 views

How to calculate the action of a channel on part of a quantum state?

As the title shows, but I think we can restrict ourselves into a more specific example. Let's consider depolarizing channel $\varepsilon$: $$\varepsilon(\rho)\equiv p\frac{I}{d}+(1-p)\rho\tag{1}$$ ...
Sherlock's user avatar
  • 695
1 vote
1 answer
391 views

Prove that different Kraus decompositions are related through a unitary, using the Choi isomorphism

I consider a process $\mathcal{E}$ that is at least CP and hermitian preserving. I know that the Choi matrix then has the form: $$ M = \sum_k |M_k \rangle \rangle \langle \langle M_k | $$ Where $|M_k \...
Marco Fellous-Asiani's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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How to code a projector operator in qiskit?

I'm new to qiskit and I want to know how do I define a projector operator in qiskit? Specifically, I have prepared a 3 qubit system, and after applying a whole lot of gates and measuring it in a state ...
thedumbkid's user avatar
22 votes
2 answers
3k views

Significance of The Church of the Higher Hilbert space

The term "Church of the Higher Hilbert Space" is used in quantum information frequently when analysing quantum channels and quantum states. What does this term mean (or, alternately, what does the ...
user3483902's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
972 views

How does the invertibility of a quantum map reflect on its Kraus operators?

Consider a quantum map $\Phi\in\mathrm T(\mathcal X)$, that is, a linear operator $\Phi:\mathrm{Lin}(\mathcal X)\to\mathrm{Lin}(\mathcal X)$ for some finite-dimensional complex vector spaces $\mathcal ...
glS's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
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What quantum channels are considered in quantum communication, and how does this choice affect the construction of error correction codes?

The so-called depolarizing channel is the channel model that is mostly used when constructing quantum error correction codes. The action of such channel over a quantum state $\rho$ is $$\rho\...
Josu Etxezarreta Martinez's user avatar
8 votes
4 answers
600 views

Computing $e^x$ on a quantum computer

Does anyone know how to make a quantum circuit to compute exponentials where the exponent can be a fraction? To be more precise, I'm looking for a fixed point quantum arithmetic circuit that does the ...
sheesymcdeezy's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
802 views

Can the Kraus decomposition always be chosen to be a statistical mixture of unitary evolutions?

If $\mathcal{E}$ is a CPTP map between hermitian operators on two Hilbert spaces, then we can find a set of operators $\{K_j\}_j$ such that $$\mathcal{E}(\rho)=\sum_j K_j\rho K_j^\dagger $$ in the ...
user2723984's user avatar
  • 1,066
8 votes
1 answer
673 views

What are examples of extremal non-projective POVMs?

Fix some finite-dimensional space $\mathcal X$. Define a POVM as a collection of positive operators summing to the identity: $\mu\equiv \{\mu(a):a\in\Sigma\}\subset{\rm Pos}(\mathcal X)$ such that $\...
glS's user avatar
  • 25k
6 votes
2 answers
2k views

How many Kraus operators are required to characterise a channel with different start and end dimensions?

If we have a quantum channel mapping from a $d$-dimensional state to a $d$-dimensional state, it can be described by at most $d^2$ Kraus operators. Suppose our channel maps instead from a $d_1$-...
Jason's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
329 views

Why does the $\chi$ matrix have $d^4-d^2$ independent parameters?

In the section on Quantum process tomography, Page 391, Chapter 8, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Nielsen and Chuang. it is given that In general, $\chi$ will contain $d^4−d^2$ ...
Sooraj S's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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What is the difference between signaling and non-signaling quantum correlations, and what is a signaling channel?

This article talks about correlation and causality in quantum mechanics. In the abstract, under Framework for local quantum mechanics, it says (emphasis mine): The most studied, almost epitomical, ...
fr_andres's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
213 views

How to use the Kraus operators to represent the total density matrix instead of the reduced one?

In Nielsen's book, the Kraus operator can be attained by trace out the enviroment: $$\operatorname{Tr}_{\rm env}[\hat{U}(|\psi\rangle\otimes|0\rangle)(\langle\psi|\otimes\langle 0|)\hat{U}^\dagger]. $$...
narip's user avatar
  • 3,004
5 votes
2 answers
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Inverting the depolarizing channel

I have a depolarizing channel acting on $2^n \times 2^n$ Hermitian matrices, defined as $$\tag{1} \mathcal{D}_p (X) = p X + (1-p) \frac{\text{Tr}(X)}{2^n} \mathbb{I}_{2^n} $$ where $\mathbb{I}_{d}$ is ...
forky40's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
601 views

Equivalent statement of the unitary freedom of Kraus operator?

There is a well-known form of the unitary freedom of Kraus operators, which can be found in Nielsen's book, stating that two sets of Kraus operators describe the same physical process of the system(...
narip's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
844 views

Determining whether there exists an equivalent set of unitary Kraus operators

I have a CPTP quantum channel $\mathcal{E}$ that I've characterized by an operator sum representation $\{E_i\}$ for $i=1, \dots, m$ which acts on an input state like $$ \mathcal{E}(\rho) = \sum_{i=1}^...
forky40's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
460 views

Direct derivation of the Kraus representation from the natural representation, using SVD

$\newcommand{\Y}{\mathcal{Y}}\newcommand{\X}{\mathcal{X}}\newcommand{\rmL}{\mathrm{L}}$As explained for example in Watrous' book (chapter 2, p. 79), given an arbitrary linear map $\Phi\in\rmL(\rmL( \X)...
glS's user avatar
  • 25k
5 votes
1 answer
266 views

Can any channel be written as $\Phi(X)=\operatorname{Tr}_{\mathcal Z}[U(X\otimes \sigma)U^\dagger]$ for any state $\sigma$?

We know that every CPTP map $\Phi:\mathcal X\to\mathcal Y$ can be represented via an isometry $U:\mathcal X\otimes\mathcal Z\to\mathcal Y\otimes\mathcal Z$, as $$\Phi(X) = \operatorname{Tr}_{\mathcal ...
glS's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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The meaning of measurements in different bases

There are other similar questions. But I don't understand the answers. Suppose I express $a|0⟩+b|1⟩$ in the form $\frac{c}{\sqrt2}(|0⟩+|1⟩)+\frac{d}{\sqrt 2}(|0⟩−|1⟩)$ where $a,b,c,d∈\mathbb C$. ...
bilanush's user avatar
  • 871
5 votes
2 answers
1k views

What are "completely positive" and "CPTP" quantum maps?

I am studying quantum computing a little bit by myself, and I have simple questions. I didn't find a clear definition of what is a completely positive and trace-preserving (CPTP) map. The best I've ...
X0-user-0X's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
595 views

How to find the unitary operation of a depolarizing channel?

Suppose we have a depolarizing channel operation $$E(\rho)=\frac{p}{2}\textbf{1}+(1-p)\rho$$ acting on a Spin$\frac{1}{2}$ density matrix of the form $\rho=\frac{1}{2}(\textbf{1}+\textbf{s}\cdot\...
Polarized photon's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
469 views

How to compute the tensor product of the depolarizing channel with the identity?

Consider two quantum systems A and B, B goes through a depolarizing noise channel, while A is not changed, i.e., they go through the channel $\mathbb{I}_A \otimes \mathcal{E_{\text{depol}}} $. If the ...
Dina Abdelhadi's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
137 views

Does a quantum channel map the maximally mixed input state into an output state with maximal rank?

Consider a quantum channel $\Phi : M_n \rightarrow M_m$ and let $\frac{\mathbb{I}_n}{n}$ be the maximally mixed input state. For all input states $\rho\in M_n$, is it true that $$\quad \text{rank} \, \...
mathwizard's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
220 views

Given a state $\rho$ and operator $0\le \Lambda\le I$, what does $\sqrt\Lambda \rho \sqrt\Lambda$ represent?

An expression that is found in a good number of results is $\sqrt\Lambda\rho\sqrt\Lambda$, for some pair of positive semidefinite operators $\rho,\Lambda\ge0$. For example, in the gentle operator ...
glS's user avatar
  • 25k
4 votes
1 answer
414 views

Diamond norm distance bound on Stinespring dilations of channels

The diamond distance between two channels $\Phi_0$ and $\Phi_1$ is defined in this answer. $$ \| \Phi_0 - \Phi_1 \|_{\diamond} = \sup_{\rho} \: \| (\Phi_0 \otimes \operatorname{Id}_k)(\rho) - (\Phi_1 ...
user1936752's user avatar
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