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Questions tagged [quantum-information]

For questions about quantum information theory. In physics and computer science, quantum information is information that is held in the state of a quantum system. Quantum information is the basic entity of study in quantum information theory and can be manipulated using engineering techniques known as quantum information processing. (Wikipedia)

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How is Bell’s Inequality converted to the CHSH inequality?

Bell’s inequality is $$S = P(a,b)-P(a,d)+P(c,b)+P(c,d) \leq 2,$$ which is calculated as $$S = ab – ad + cb + cd \leq 2.$$ The CHSH version is: $$E = \frac{N_{11} + N_{00} - N_{10} -N_{01}} {N_{11} + ...
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Partial Transpose and Positive Operators

Question: For 2x2 and 2x3 systems, is the partial transpose the only positive but not completely positive operation that is possible? Why this came up: The criteria for detecting if a state $\rho$ is ...
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Concurrence for a two qubit state

The concurrence for a state $\rho$ as defined here is \begin{equation} C(\rho) = {\rm max}\{0, \lambda_1-\lambda_2-\lambda_3-\lambda_4\}. \end{equation} Where $\lambda_i$ are the eigenvalues of matrix ...
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Can we teleport a human or send information faster than light using quantum teleportation?

What does quantum teleportation mean? Is it something that will allow us to send information faster than the light? Can we teleport a human with it?
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Quantum teleportation with moving Alice and Bob

I have questions regarding quantum teleportation, which keep confusing me. Suppose Alice and Bob are in the same inertial frame $K$, and at time $t$ (in $K$) Alice teleports a quantum state to Bob. ...
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1answer
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Why is $P(1,2)_{\text{same}} = \frac{1}{4}$ and not $\frac{1}{2}$ in Preskill's Bell experiment?

Context: Three coins on the table. Each is either heads or tails. You can uncover any one of the three coins, revealing whether it is heads or tails but then you choose two the other two coins ...
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Can “experimental data from a quantum computer” be used to test separability probability conjectures?

An article entitled "Experimental data from a quantum computer verifies the generalize Pauli exclusion principle" by Scott E. Smart, David I. Schuster, and David A. Mazziotti has just appeared In the ...
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51 views

Transmission of information over long distances

I am reading that entangled particles can share information across long distances and the speed is usually faster than the speed of light...so am I right in assuming that future communications in the ...
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1answer
256 views

How can quantum computing win 97% of times in coin flipping experiment?

I'm new to this field of science. I'm curious about how quantum computing can win 97% of times in a coin flipping experiment? Refer this link: Ted Talk by Shohini Ghose To give an idea about how ...
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Non-uniqueness of pure states ensemble decomposition

Apparently, the decomposition of a state into an ensemble of pure states is not unique. I can't understand why, as if I understood correctly a "pure state ensemble decomposition" is just the ...
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Real-life examples of classical-quantum channels

In quantum information theory, classical-quantum channels are considered to be channels whose input is the realizations $x\in\mathcal{X}$ of a classical random variable to a quantum state $\rho_x^B$, ...
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Defining entanglement for systems with more than two qbits

Introductory textbooks I've read define entanglement as when your product state cannot be factored into the tensor product of individual quantum states. But consider a three-qbit system: $C_{2,0}H_2|...
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Is the set of classical-quantum states convex?

I read about the classical-quantum states in the textbook by Mark Wilde and there is an exercise that asks to show the set of classical-quantum states is not a convex set. But I have an argument to ...
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Partial trace over a product of matrices - one factor is in tensor product form

$$Tr(\rho^{AB} (\sigma^A \otimes I/d)) = Tr(\rho^A \sigma^A)$$ I came across the above, but I'm not sure how it's true. I figured they first partial traced out the B subsystem, and then trace A, but ...
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Building Intuition for Relative Von Neumann Entropy

This is how I think about classical relative entropy: There is a variable that has distribution P, that is outcome $i$ has probability $p_i$ of occuring, but someone mistakes it to be of a ...
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Kraus operators from POVM matrices

Is there a way to find Kraus operators if I know POVM matrices? For a simple example, how would you find the Kraus operators if the POVM matrices are the following: \begin{bmatrix} \frac{1}{2} &...
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1answer
42 views

Partial Trace over a complicated looking state

In the Quantum Operations section in Nielsen and Chuang, (page 358 in the 2002 edition), they have the following equation: $$\varepsilon(\rho) = tr_{env} [U(\rho \otimes \rho_{env})U^\dagger]$$ They ...
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1answer
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Depolarizing channel operator sum representation

In Nielsen and Chuang, it is shown that the operator sum representation of a depolarizing channel $\mathcal{E}(\rho) = \frac{pI}{2} + (1-p)\rho$ is easily seen by substituting the identity matrix with ...
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Shannon entropy is least when Measurement basis = Mixture basis

For a one qubit system, take a basis. Call this the mixture basis. Consider only basis states and classical mixtures of these basis states. Definition of Shannon Entropy used here: Defined with ...
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1answer
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How to formulate the master equation for three systems?

I have a three composite system of the form $H_{\text{tot}}=H_{ab}\otimes H_c$ where the system $C$ is behaving as the dissipator or the environment (I can model it as a thermal bath). And it is ...
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1answer
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How many Kraus operators are required to characterise a channel with different start and end dimensions?

If we have a quantum channel mapping from a $d$-dimensional state to a $d$-dimensional state, it can be described by at most $d^2$ Kraus operators. Suppose our channel maps instead from a $d_1$-...
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Dephasing channels

I'm taking a quantum information course and one of my exercises says to find $p,p'$, for which there is a channel $\tilde\Lambda(\Lambda(\rho))=\Lambda'(\rho)$, where $\Lambda$ and $\Lambda'$ are ...
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Can vectorization lead to mixed states?

Given an operator $L = \sum_{ij}L_{ij}\vert i\rangle\langle j\vert$, in some basis, the definition of vectorization is $vec(L) = \sum_{ij}L_{ij}\vert i\rangle\vert j\rangle$. The operation is ...
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Density matrix after measurement on density matrix

Let's say Alice wants to send Bob a $|0\rangle$ with probability .5 and $|1\rangle$ also with probability .5. So after a qubit Alice prepares leaves her lab, the system could be represented by the ...
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Shared entanglement to copy orthogonal states

Assume that Alice and Bob are allowed to share entanglement and are spatially separated. Alice is given an unknown state and asked to measure this in the computational basis to obtain $\vert 0\rangle$ ...
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Isometric Extension of an Erasure Channel

Show that an isometric extension of the erasure channel is $$U^N_{A\to BE} =\sqrt{1−\epsilon}\left(|0\rangle_B \langle 0|_A +|1\rangle_B \langle 1|_A \right)\otimes|e\rangle_E+ \sqrt{\epsilon}|e\...
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1answer
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Confusion on the definition of the phase-damping channel

I am reading about the phase damping channel, and I have seen that some of the different references talking about such channel give different definitions of the Kraus operators that define the action ...
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1answer
50 views

Convention for expressing measurement in non-standard basis

If we're measuring in common bases like $|0\rangle$, $|1\rangle$ or $|+\rangle$, $|-\rangle$ we express this by saying we're measuring with $\sigma_z$ or $\sigma_x$, or measuring in the computational ...
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1answer
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Determining whether $P(ab|xy)$ factorizes in Bell experiments

Continuing from my previous (1, 2) questions on Brunner et al.'s paper on Bell nonlocality. Again, we have the following standard Bell experiment setup: where independent inputs $x,y \in \{0, 1\}$ ...
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1answer
47 views

Comprehension questions on quantum cryptography especially BB84

I have recently read a lot about the BB84 protocol, I have used three primary sources, the original work, a QK book, and a diploma thesis. My questions refer to the photons sent by Alice, the base of ...
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Quantum channel Holevo information additivity: proof approach

I have an interesting idea for a proof approach that someone might find useful. Here it is. Suppose we are given a quantum qubit channel $N$ (for example the amplitude damping channel) whose Holevo ...
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Three sender quantum simultaneous decoder conjecture

Recently I have started to read about network quantum information theory, where network problems are studied under the classical-quantum channel. For example, capacities of the cq-MAC, cq-broadcast or ...
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Total mutual information of a quantum system

In the discussions about quantum correlations, particularly beyond entanglement (discord, dissonance e.t.c), one can often meet two definitions of mutual information of a quantum system $\rho^{AB}$: ...
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What is the quantum bandwidth of a planar array of noisy qubits, assuming free classical communication?

A common task to perform during quantum computation on the surface code is moving qubits from one place to another. There are standard ways to do this within the surface code, but I was wondering what ...
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1answer
108 views

Are the eigenvalues of an observable always -1 and 1?

What are the necessary & sufficient conditions for a matrix to be an observable, and what is the proof that any such matrix has eigenvalues -1 and 1 (if indeed that is the case)? I ask because in ...
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1answer
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Kraus operator of dephasing channel

I'm trying to deduce the Kraus representation of the dephasing channel using the Choi operator (I know the Kraus operators can be guessed in this case, I want to understand the general case). The ...
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1answer
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How to transfer non maximally entangled state to maximally entangled?

Let a three-qubit state shared between Alice, Bob and Charlie stationed at distant laboratories be $$\psi_{ABC}=\frac{\sqrt{2}}{\sqrt{3}}|000\rangle+\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}|111\rangle.$$ How to evaluate ...
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1answer
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Definition of locality in Bell experiments

Continuing from my previous question on Brunner et al.'s paper; so given a standard Bell experimental setup: where independent inputs $x,y \in \{0, 1\}$ decide the measurement performed by Alice &...
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3answers
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Bell nonlocality and conditional independence

I've been working through the paper Bell nonlocality by Brunner et al. after seeing it in user glS' answer here. Early on in the paper, the standard Bell experimental setup is defined: Where $x, y \...
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2answers
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Polarization and qubit information

It is my understanding that light, and its polarization, is used to transfer information in quantum computers, but how can the information encoded in say, an electron also be stored in light? I ...
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Are correlations stronger than those allowed by quantum mechanics possible?

We know how a quantum correlation setup can help us with a better probability of winning games like the CHSH. But what is the upper bound that physics can allow? Is it the quantum correlation setup? ...
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1answer
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Semidefinite program for conditional min-entropy

I am trying to formulate the calculation of conditional min-entropy as a semidefinite program. However, so far I have not been able to do so. Different sources formulate it differently. For example, ...
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3answers
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Controlling high-dimensional Hilbert spaces with a single qubit

In superdense coding, you can use one qubit to control the Hilbert space of two qubits and steer it into 4 mutually orthogonal states, so that measurement of both qubits together will not have a ...
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What exactly is an oracle?

What exactly is an "oracle"? Wikipedia says that an oracle is a "blackbox", but I'm not sure what that means. For example, in the Deutsch–Jozsa algorithm,$\hspace{85px}$,is the oracle just the box ...
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1answer
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Could we use varying voltage with programmable gates?

One of the benefits I'm reading about qubits is that they can be in an infinite number of states. I'm aware of Holevo's bound (even though I don't fully understand it). However, it made me think of ...
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How can blackholes be fast information scramblers?

I noticed that there was already a post discussing the fast scrambling property of black holes. But it seems no satisfactory answer was given. As mentioned by L. Susskind et. al, the fast scrambling ...
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Relation between quantum entanglement and quantum state complexity

Both quantum entanglement and quantum state complexity are important in quantum information processing. They are usually highly correlated, i.e., roughly a state with a higher entanglement corresponds ...
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The classical simulation of 2D graph state and the measurement based quantum computation

In my former post on Physics SE I deduced a contradiction in the classical simulation of 2D graph state and the classical simulation of general measurement-based quantum computation. In Norbert's ...
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Do the probability amplitudes of the superposition state produced by the QFT transform convey useful information?

I have been studying on Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) by myself, and I am little bit confused about how could QFT be used. For example, if the QFT of three quantum bits is $a_1|000\rangle + ...
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Suggest, partly based upon limited numerical results, possible “elegant” exact formulas for Bures two-qubit separability probability

Lovas and Andai (https://arxiv.org/abs/1610.01410) have recently established that the separability probability (ratio of separable volume to total volume) for the nine-dimensional convex set of two-...