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Questions tagged [quantum-information]

For questions about quantum information theory. In physics and computer science, quantum information is information that is held in the state of a quantum system. Quantum information is the basic entity of study in quantum information theory and can be manipulated using engineering techniques known ...

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How many Kraus operators are required to characterise a channel with different start and end dimensions?

If we have a quantum channel mapping from a $d$-dimensional state to a $d$-dimensional state, it can be described by at most $d^2$ Kraus operators. Suppose our channel maps instead from a $d_1$-...
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Dephasing channels

I'm taking a quantum information course and one of my exercises says to find $p,p'$, for which there is a channel $\tilde\Lambda(\Lambda(\rho))=\Lambda'(\rho)$, where $\Lambda$ and $\Lambda'$ are ...
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Can vectorization lead to mixed states?

Given an operator $L = \sum_{ij}L_{ij}\vert i\rangle\langle j\vert$, in some basis, the definition of vectorization is $vec(L) = \sum_{ij}L_{ij}\vert i\rangle\vert j\rangle$. The operation is ...
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Density matrix after measurement on density matrix

Let's say Alice wants to send Bob a $|0\rangle$ with probability .5 and $|1\rangle$ also with probability .5. So after a qubit Alice prepares leaves her lab, the system could be represented by the ...
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A quantum circuit with entanglement with Eve

I'm trying to work through a self-made exercise, which may be ill formed as a question. Any general advice in dealing with these types of problems is also much appreciated! I'm looking at a quantum ...
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Shared entanglement to copy orthogonal states

Assume that Alice and Bob are allowed to share entanglement and are spatially separated. Alice is given an unknown state and asked to measure this in the computational basis to obtain $\vert 0\rangle$ ...
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Isometric Extension of an Erasure Channel

Show that an isometric extension of the erasure channel is $$U^N_{A\to BE} =\sqrt{1−\epsilon}\left(|0\rangle_B \langle 0|_A +|1\rangle_B \langle 1|_A \right)\otimes|e\rangle_E+ \sqrt{\epsilon}|e\...
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Convention for expressing measurement in non-standard basis

If we're measuring in common bases like $|0\rangle$, $|1\rangle$ or $|+\rangle$, $|-\rangle$ we express this by saying we're measuring with $\sigma_z$ or $\sigma_x$, or measuring in the computational ...
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Determining whether $P(ab|xy)$ factorizes in Bell experiments

Continuing from my previous (1, 2) questions on Brunner et al.'s paper on Bell nonlocality. Again, we have the following standard Bell experiment setup: where independent inputs $x,y \in \{0, 1\}$ ...
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Comprehension questions on quantum cryptography especially BB84

I have recently read a lot about the BB84 protocol, I have used three primary sources, the original work, a QK book, and a diploma thesis. My questions refer to the photons sent by Alice, the base of ...
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Quantum channel Holevo information additivity: proof approach

I have an interesting idea for a proof approach that someone might find useful. Here it is. Suppose we are given a quantum qubit channel $N$ (for example the amplitude damping channel) whose Holevo ...
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Three sender quantum simultaneous decoder conjecture

Recently I have started to read about network quantum information theory, where network problems are studied under the classical-quantum channel. For example, capacities of the cq-MAC, cq-broadcast or ...
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Total mutual information of a quantum system

In the discussions about quantum correlations, particularly beyond entanglement (discord, dissonance e.t.c), one can often meet two definitions of mutual information of a quantum system $\rho^{AB}$: ...
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What is the quantum bandwidth of a planar array of noisy qubits, assuming free classical communication?

A common task to perform during quantum computation on the surface code is moving qubits from one place to another. There are standard ways to do this within the surface code, but I was wondering what ...
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Are the eigenvalues of an observable always -1 and 1?

What are the necessary & sufficient conditions for a matrix to be an observable, and what is the proof that any such matrix has eigenvalues -1 and 1 (if indeed that is the case)? I ask because in ...
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Kraus operator of dephasing channel

I'm trying to deduce the Kraus representation of the dephasing channel using the Choi operator (I know the Kraus operators can be guessed in this case, I want to understand the general case). The ...
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How to transfer non maximally entangled state to maximally entangled?

Let a three-qubit state shared between Alice, Bob and Charlie stationed at distant laboratories be $$\psi_{ABC}=\frac{\sqrt{2}}{\sqrt{3}}|000\rangle+\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}|111\rangle.$$ How to evaluate ...
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Definition of locality in Bell experiments

Continuing from my previous question on Brunner et al.'s paper; so given a standard Bell experimental setup: where independent inputs $x,y \in \{0, 1\}$ decide the measurement performed by Alice &...
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Bell nonlocality and conditional independence

I've been working through the paper Bell nonlocality by Brunner et al. after seeing it in user glS' answer here. Early on in the paper, the standard Bell experimental setup is defined: Where $x, y \...
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Polarization and qubit information

It is my understanding that light, and its polarization, is used to transfer information in quantum computers, but how can the information encoded in say, an electron also be stored in light? I ...
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Are correlations stronger than those allowed by quantum mechanics possible?

We know how a quantum correlation setup can help us with a better probability of winning games like the CHSH. But what is the upper bound that physics can allow? Is it the quantum correlation setup? ...
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Semidefinite program for conditional min-entropy

I am trying to formulate the calculation of conditional min-entropy as a semidefinite program. However, so far I have not been able to do so. Different sources formulate it differently. For example, ...
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Controlling high-dimensional Hilbert spaces with a single qubit

In superdense coding, you can use one qubit to control the Hilbert space of two qubits and steer it into 4 mutually orthogonal states, so that measurement of both qubits together will not have a ...
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What exactly is an oracle?

What exactly is an "oracle"? Wikipedia says that an oracle is a "blackbox", but I'm not sure what that means. For example, in the Deutsch–Jozsa algorithm,$\hspace{85px}$,is the oracle just the box ...
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Could we use varying voltage with programmable gates?

One of the benefits I'm reading about qubits is that they can be in an infinite number of states. I'm aware of Holevo's bound (even though I don't fully understand it). However, it made me think of ...
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How can blackholes be fast information scramblers?

I noticed that there was already a post discussing the fast scrambling property of black holes. But it seems no satisfactory answer was given. As mentioned by L. Susskind et. al, the fast scrambling ...
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Relation between quantum entanglement and quantum state complexity

Both quantum entanglement and quantum state complexity are important in quantum information processing. They are usually highly correlated, i.e., roughly a state with a higher entanglement corresponds ...
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The classical simulation of 2D graph state and the measurement based quantum computation

In my former post on Physics SE I deduced a contradiction in the classical simulation of 2D graph state and the classical simulation of general measurement-based quantum computation. In Norbert's ...
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Do the probability amplitudes of the superposition state produced by the QFT transform convey useful information?

I have been studying on Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) by myself, and I am little bit confused about how could QFT be used. For example, if the QFT of three quantum bits is $a_1|000\rangle + ...
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Suggest, partly based upon limited numerical results, possible “elegant” exact formulas for Bures two-qubit separability probability

Lovas and Andai (https://arxiv.org/abs/1610.01410) have recently established that the separability probability (ratio of separable volume to total volume) for the nine-dimensional convex set of two-...
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Relating min-entropy with conditional entropy

Suppose we have a classical quantum state $\sum_x |x\rangle \langle x|\otimes \rho_x$, one can define the smooth-min entropy $H_\min(A|B)_\rho$ as the best probability of guessing outcome $x$ given $\...
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Rotationally invariant maximally entangled states in higher dimensions

Is there a straightforward generalization of the $\mathbb{C}^2$ Bell basis to $N$ dimensions? Is there a rotational invariant Bell state in higher dimensions? If yes, then what is the form of that ...
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Collective measurements: importance and realization

I am reading the paper Polar codes for classical-quantum channels by Wilde and Guha, and it is stated the fact that collective measurements are necessary in order to aciheve the Holevo symmetric ...
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Experimental Realization of Superactivation of Quantum Capacity

The superactivation of quantum capacity is an effect that some quantum channels present such that is two of those channels with zero capacity are combined, a non-zero channel capacity can be achieved ...
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EA-Turbo simulation package

I am working with the quantum turbo codes presented in this paper by Wilde, Hsieh and Babar, and it is claimed that a package to simulate such codes is available at ea-turbo. However, the hyperlink to ...
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How many bits do Alice and Bob needs to compare to make sure the channel is secure in BB84?

I was trying to self-study qmc by reading the Quantum Computing A Gentle Introduction book, in section 2.4 it talks about the quantum key distribution protocol BB84. After (I thought) I understood it ...
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Generalization for $n$ quantum teleportations

In Breaking Down the Quantum Swap, it is stated: Thanks to the CNOT, we can implement a xor-swap on a quantum computer. All we need to do is chain three CNOTs back and forth. In a comment to a ...
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What is the Helstrom measurement?

I have been reading the paper Belief propagation decoding of quantum channels by passing quantum messages by Joseph Renes for decoding Classical-Quantum channels and I have crossed with the concept of ...
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Is there a classical limit to quantum computing?

Why are quantum computers scalable? With the subjects of spontaneous collapse models and decoherence in mind, it seems to me that the scalability of quantum computers is something which is not only ...
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Image of a sum of positive operators contains the images of each individual operator?

In the proof of Proposition 2.52 of John Watrous' QI book, see here: https://cs.uwaterloo.ca/~watrous/TQI/TQI.2.pdf, there is the statement that $\text{im}(\eta(a))\subset\text{im}(\rho)$, where $\...
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Cloning classical data encoded into qubits

How is it possible to maintain classical data encoded into qubits, which often contains copies of information, given that the no cloning theorem prevents cloning information?
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Simplest algorithm for intuitively demonstrating quantum speed-up?

What's the simplest algorithm (like Deutsch's algorithm and Grover's Algorithm) for intuitively demonstrating quantum speed-up? And can this algorithm be explained intuitively? Ideally this would be ...
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Estimate/determine Bures separability probabilities making use of corresponding Hilbert-Schmidt probabilities

For two-qubit states, represented by a $4\times 4$ density matrix, the generic state is described by 15 real parameters. For ease of calculation, it can help to consider restricted families of states, ...
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Breakthroughs in quantum computing using non-standard quanta [closed]

It seems that quantum computers can be classified by the type of quantum they operate on. Not entirely sure what category most common current systems fall into (eg. D-Wave, Google, IBM, Microsoft). ...
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Has anyone analyzed multi-round nonlocal games?

The traditional definition of a nonlocal game is restricted to having two players and one round (e.g., here), but it is natural to consider a more general class of games that may have more than two ...
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Advances in Quantum Channel Capacity

I have been reading about the Quantum Channel Capacity and it seems to be an open problem to find such capacity in general. Quantum capacity is the highest rate at which quantum information can be ...
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How could a global quantum network be realized?

This article from 2017 predicts the quantum internet by 2030. What are the biggest bottlenecks in the realization of a global quantum network (ie quantum internet)?
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Nielsen & Chuang Exercise 2.1 - “Linear dependence: example”

Reproduced from Exercise 2.1 of Nielsen & Chuang's Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (10th Anniversary Edition): Show that $(1, −1)$, $(1, 2)$ and $(2, 1)$ are linearly dependent. ...
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Generating algebra from commutation

In a paper I am reading, it states: For open-loop coherent controllability a quantum system with Hamiltonian $H$ is open-loop controllable by a coherent controller if and only if the algebra $\...
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What is the relationship between the Toffoli gate and the Popescu-Rohrlich box?

Background The Toffoli gate is a 3-input, 3-output classical logic gate. It sends $(x, y, a)$ to $(x, y, a \oplus (x \cdot y))$. It is significant in that it is universal for reversible (classical) ...