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Questions tagged [quantum-entanglement]

For questions about the principle and application of quantum entanglement, the phenomenon that the states of two qubits can only be described as the state of one system, to quantum computers.

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How to transfer non maximally entangled state to maximally entangled?

Let a three-qubit state shared between Alice, Bob and Charlie stationed at distant laboratories be $$\psi_{ABC}=\frac{\sqrt{2}}{\sqrt{3}}|000\rangle+\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}|111\rangle.$$ How to evaluate ...
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Controlling high-dimensional Hilbert spaces with a single qubit

In superdense coding, you can use one qubit to control the Hilbert space of two qubits and steer it into 4 mutually orthogonal states, so that measurement of both qubits together will not have a ...
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Are there any test examples of Octave and Quantum Entanglement?

I read this research paper. I have octave and the package running. This is an example of what I did so far - octave:3> s1 = state(normalize(ket([1,0])+ket([0,1]))) s1 = 0.00000 0.00000 0....
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Maximally mixed states for more than 1 qubit

For 1 qubit, the maximally mixed state is $\frac{\mathrm{I}}{2}$. So, for two qubits, I assume the maximally mixed state is the maximally mixed state is $\frac{\mathrm{I}}{4}$? Which is: $\frac{1}{...
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BB84 attack with entangled qubits example

BB84 attack with entangled qubits example Hi, I'am interested in an attack for BB84 protocol with entangled quibits. Lets say Alice sends a qubit $x$ in state $\left|1\right>_x$ to Bob and Eve ...
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How can blackholes be fast information scramblers?

I noticed that there was already a post discussing the fast scrambling property of black holes. But it seems no satisfactory answer was given. As mentioned by L. Susskind et. al, the fast scrambling ...
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Relation between quantum entanglement and quantum state complexity

Both quantum entanglement and quantum state complexity are important in quantum information processing. They are usually highly correlated, i.e., roughly a state with a higher entanglement corresponds ...
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The classical simulation of 2D graph state and the measurement based quantum computation

In my former post on Physics SE I deduced a contradiction in the classical simulation of 2D graph state and the classical simulation of general measurement-based quantum computation. In Norbert's ...
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How to observe quantum entanglement? [closed]

I am using MS Vcode for development along with Google Cirq framework for Quantum programming. How can I observe the quantum entanglement using classical computing? I manage to create Circuit, append ...
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How to simulate quantum entanglement variation in different quantum gates?

I'm trying to study quantum entanglement variation during quantum computation with 4 qubit systems comprising a variety of quantum gates. How can I simulate this variation on MATLAB? Is there any ...
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Does entanglement correlate qubits a $100\%$ of the time?

$\newcommand{\qr}[1]{|#1\rangle}$Say I begin with $4$ qubits $\qr{+}\qr{+}\qr{+}\qr{+}$ forming a register $B$. Name these qubits as $b_3, b_2, b_1, b_0$. Also, let $C$ be another register $\qr0\qr0\...
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Quantum teleportation: second classical bit for removing entanglement?

I have read about how Alice can send Bob a qubit $\alpha |0\rangle + \beta|1\rangle$ if they share an EPR pair. This gives an initial state: $(\alpha |0\rangle + \beta|1\rangle) \otimes (\frac{1}{\...
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Many-Worlds Interpretation and GHZ States

I'm working through a problem set, and I've come across the following problem: In this problem, you'll explore something that we said in class about the Many-Worlds Interpretation of quantum ...
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Simulating Read only QRAM (constructing an oracle) [closed]

In many algorithms an array that stores a classical data or quantum data is crucial. The QRAM (quantum random access memory) that stores classical data in the circuit has been done. My question ...
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Suggest, partly based upon limited numerical results, possible “elegant” exact formulas for Bures two-qubit separability probability

Lovas and Andai (https://arxiv.org/abs/1610.01410) have recently established that the separability probability (ratio of separable volume to total volume) for the nine-dimensional convex set of two-...
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Relating min-entropy with conditional entropy

Suppose we have a classical quantum state $\sum_x |x\rangle \langle x|\otimes \rho_x$, one can define the smooth-min entropy $H_\min(A|B)_\rho$ as the best probability of guessing outcome $x$ given $\...
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General construction of $W_n$-state

Two of the most well known entangled states are the GHZ-state $|\psi\rangle = 1/\sqrt{2}\left( |0\rangle^{\otimes n} + |1\rangle^{\otimes n}\right)$ and the $W_n$-state, with $W_3 = 1/\sqrt{3}\left(|...
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Rotationally invariant maximally entangled states in higher dimensions

Is there a straightforward generalization of the $\mathbb{C}^2$ Bell basis to $N$ dimensions? Is there a rotational invariant Bell state in higher dimensions? If yes, then what is the form of that ...
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Applying CNOT With Local Operations and Two EPR Pairs

Suppose Alice and Bob hold one qubit each of an arbitrary two-qubit state $|\psi \rangle$ that is possibly entangled. They can apply local operations and are allowed classical communication. Their ...
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Protocol for entaglement swapping

Suppose there are 3 parties, of which 2 pairs share an EPR pair and can communicate classically. What is a protocol that results in the third pair sharing an EPR pair? That is the problem I'm given, ...
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Entanglement state preparation by using amplitude values

I have an algorithm that uses QRAM, after accessing the given QRAM that store M d-dimensional classical vectors, the state of the index register and the data register become entangled. But for now I ...
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How to calculate the number of ebits in a graph state?

Given an arbitrary graph state $|G\rangle$ represented by the graph $G$, can one use the graphical structure to calculate the number of ebits (entanglement bits) present in the state? If so, how?
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Is there a relation between the factorisation of the joint conditional probability distribution and Bell inequality?

[I'm sorry, I've already posted the same question in the physics community, but I haven't received an answer yet.] I'm approaching the study of Bell's inequalities and I understood the reasoning ...
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Photon Entanglement using SPDC

Are there any good references where from I can learn about photon entanglement using spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC)?
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Can two states with the same entanglement be transformed into each other using local unitaries?

Take two pure bi-partite states $\psi$ and $\phi$ that have the same amount of entanglement in them as quantified by concurrence (does the measure make a difference?). Can any such states be ...
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Is entanglement an operation or a stored state for qubits?

I am going through this video of Quantum Computing for Computer Scientists. I am not able to understand the entanglement state of qubits. Is entanglement just an operation, or is it a state which ...
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CNOT Gate on Entangled Qubits

I was trying to generate Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state for $N$ states using quantum computing, starting with $|000...000\rangle$ (N times) The proposed solution is to first apply Hadamard ...
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Estimate/determine Bures separability probabilities making use of corresponding Hilbert-Schmidt probabilities

For two-qubit states, represented by a $4\times 4$ density matrix, the generic state is described by 15 real parameters. For ease of calculation, it can help to consider restricted families of states, ...
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Compact encoding of Boolean formula as oracle

As in the title, I have a doubt regarding the implementation of a boolean formula used as an oracle for a quantum algorithm. The problem is that so far I could reproduce the formula as a quantum ...
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Is entanglement necessary for quantum computation?

Entanglement is often discussed as being one of the essential components that makes quantum different from classical. But is entanglement really necessary to achieve a speed-up in quantum computation?
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When you act on a multi-qubit system with a 2-qubit gate, what happens to the third qubit?

I am learning to manipulate Qbits and recently I saw the teleportation algorithm. I read about it in two places: Wikipedia and Lecture Notes from Ronald de Wolf (Page 7, 1.5 Example: Quantum ...
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How is entanglement achieved between two particles in quantum computing?

Many texts (especially meant for public consumption) discussing quantum mechanics tend to skim over exactly how entanglement is achieved. Even the Wikipedia article on quantum entanglement describes ...
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What are the possible ways to visualise large, entangled states?

What are the prominent visualisations used to depict large, entangled states and in what context are they most commonly applied? What are their advantages and disadvantages?
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Does local Clifford equivalence have a direct graphical representation for qudit graph states of non-prime dimension?

This question is a follow-up to the previous QCSE question: "Are qudit graph states well-defined for non-prime dimension?". From the question's answer, it appears that there is nothing wrong in ...
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How to represent a qubyte?

I was not able to locate any visuals online. The visual I have in my head is a cube w/ bloch spheres as the eight vertices. I am also curious about a matrix representation, although I am not sure ...
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Realization of Quantum Shadowgraphy

I recently found out about shadowgraphy and was wondering if a technique like this could be used to: Visually show entanglement Suffice as a measure (e.g. continous partial trace) Most useful ...
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Are Absolutely Maximally Entangled states maximally entangled under all entanglement monotones?

In Ref. [1] absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are defined as: An $\textrm{AME}(n,d)$ state (absolutely maximally entangled state) of $n$ qudits of dimension $d$, $|\psi\rangle \in \mathbb{...
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Difference between 3 qubits, 2 qutrits & 1 six level qunit

What is the difference between 3 qubits, 2 qutrits and a 6th level qunit? Are they equivalent? Why / why not? Can 6 classical bits be super-densely coded into each?
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How to show that an n-level system is entangled?

"How do I show that a two-qubit state is an entangled state?" includes an answer which references the Peres–Horodecki criterion. This works for $2\times 2$ and $2\times3$ dimensional cases; however, ...
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Generalization of n-th level entangled system

I have seen qubits, qutrits & entangled bits (e-bits) a decent amount. I have also seen qunits/qudits for n-th level qubits. What I am trying to wrap my head around is the differences between n-th ...
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What is the applicability of quantum network coding?

As the title suggests, I want to know what the applicability of quantum network coding is, besides the EPR pair construction between distant pairs of 'Users-Targets'. Can quantum network coding be ...
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How to check if 2 qubits are entangled? [duplicate]

I know that 2 qubits are entangled if it is impossible to represent their joint state as a tensor product. But when we are given a joint state, how can we tell if it is possible to represent it as a ...
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How do I show that a two-qubit state is an entangled state?

The Bell state $|\Phi^{+}\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(|00\rangle + |11\rangle )$ is an entangled state. But why is that the case? How do I mathematically prove that?
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How to implement the 4 Bell states on the IBM Q (composer)?

I would like to simulate the 4 "Bell States" on the IBM composer? How can I best implement those 4 Bell states using the existing set of gates ? Here below you see the definition of the 4 Bell ...
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Bell Inequality violations at large distances

Could anyone point to some references examining Bell inequality violations at large distances please? I see many times, in pop science articles and research literature alike, that the quantum ...
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Is entanglement transitive?

Is entanglement transitive, in a mathematical sense? More concretely, my question is this: Consider 3 qubits $q_1, q_2$ and $q_3$. Assume that $q_1$ and $q_2$ are entangled, and that $q_2$ and $q_3$...
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Entanglement in Shor's algorithm

One deals with the notion of superposition when studying Shor's algorithm, but how about entanglement? Where exactly does it appear in this particular circuit? I assume it is not yet present in the ...
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When was the first use of the word Entanglement?

Schrödinger wrote a letter to Einstein after the 1935 EPR paper, and in that letter Schrödinger used the German word "Verschränkung" which translates into "entanglement", but when was the word first ...
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Are there connections between long-range entanglement and topological quantum computation?

Long-range entanglement is characterized by topological order (some kinds of global entanglement properties), and the "modern" definition of topological order is the ground state of the system cannot ...
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Entanglement distillation by local operations and post-selection using one entanglement pair

Consider the state $|X\rangle = \sqrt{0.9} |00\rangle + \sqrt{0.1} |11\rangle$, shared between Alice and Bob, who are located far apart. Alice brings in an ancilla qubit at her location (left-most ...