# Questions tagged [projection-operator]

A projection operator is one which when acts upon a quantum state (which is an element of a Hilbert space), "projects" it onto a subspace or onto another element of the same Hilbert space.

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### Mutual information of shared state is larger than expectation values

Im trying to prove the following identity for a special case: Alice and Bob share the Bell state \begin{align*} |\psi\rangle = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(|00\rangle+|11\rangle). \end{align*} Consider the ...
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### How much complexity is required to implement $\text{C$_\Pi$NOT}$ gate?

The projector-controlled not gate $\text{C$_\Pi$NOT}$ is defined as $$\text{C_\PiNOT} \, \colon= \Pi \otimes X + (\mathbb{I}-\Pi)\otimes\mathbb{I}\,, \tag{1}$$ in András Gilyén et. al. (2018)[arXiv:...
1 vote
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### Construct of a quantum circuit for the projection $|0\rangle\langle0| + |1\rangle\langle1|$ and its generalizations

We can construct a projection over $|0\rangle \langle 0|$ using a quantum circuit with two qubits via the Hadamard test circuit $$U = H_1 X_2 CZ_{1,2} X_2 H_1 X_1\,, \tag{1}$$ and by performing ...
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1 vote
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### How to show that the three-qubit repetition code only corrects up to 1-bit flip errors?

From Nielsen and Chuang, the error correction criteria is $$P E_i^{\dagger} E_j P=\alpha_{i j} P$$ $P$ is the projector onto the correct codespace, $E_{j}$ are error operations and $\alpha_{i j}$ is ...
1 vote
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### Prove that the twirling operation on a channel gives a decomposition $\int dU\, U^\dagger\mathcal E(U\rho U^\dagger)U=\alpha P+\beta Q$

The twirled operation of a quantum channel $\mathcal E$ is defined as \begin{align} \mathcal E_T(\rho) &= \int dU U^\dagger \mathcal E(U \rho U^\dagger)U, \end{align} where the integral is over ...
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### Optimal estimation of quantum state overlap - Circuit implementation?

I've been reading this paper, but don't understand what their optimal method really is, and how it can be realized as a quantum circuit. The paper mentions the "Schur transform" which has a ...
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### How does a quantum system identify hermitian and unitary matrices?

I am a beginner in quantum computing. I know that multiplying a state $|u\rangle$ with a hermitian matrix $M$ yields spectral decomposition and multiplying $|u\rangle$ with a unitary matrix yield an ...
1 vote
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### How to write post-measurement states when the measurement apparatus measures one of two observables?

If I want to measure an observable $A$ but the measurement apparatus has $(1-p)$ probability of measuring the observable $B$ and probability $p$ that a measurement of $A$ would be done. So how can I ...
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### Projective measurement operation in Qiskit

I would like to implement the operation $\pi = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 \end{bmatrix}$ on qiskit but I don't know how to do that. If I use the reset ...
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### How to write down product operators acting on non-adjacent subsystems?

Given the following fusion gate (type-2) which is projecting 2 qubits to an even state $$F_{ZZ}=(\langle00|+\langle|11|)$$ I would like to find the operator for the bigger space. For example, if I ...
1 vote
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### Qiskit implementation for projecting a hermitian operator and finding its eigenvalues

I'm brand new to quantum computing and have been learning Qiskit for a few weeks now. I am attempting to find the number of 0 eigenvalues of the following operator: $$T = PHP$$ where $P$ is a ...
1 vote
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### why Hamiltonian can be expressed by sum of outer product in two level systems?

I can not figure out why Hamiltonian can be like this. Does H should be kinetic energy puls potential energy? Your help would be highly appreciated.
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### Distinguishing $n$ pure states in an $n$ dimensional Hilbert space

Suppose we have $n$ pure states in an $n$ dimensional Hilbert space, and we would like to distinguish them using POVM or PVM. We get any one of the pure states with equal probability, and we may set ...
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### Are the eigenvalues of projectors always zero and/or one?

Nielsen and Chuang, page 87, defining projective measurements, refers to projectors with "eigenvalue m." However, exercise 2.16 on page 70 seems to imply that the eigenvalue is always one or ...
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### If $\rho \approx_{\varepsilon}\sigma$, how to find $\Pi\rho\Pi$ to ensure that $\text{supp}(\Pi\rho\Pi)\subset\text{supp}(\sigma)$?

Let $\rho$ and $\sigma$ be positive semidefinite operators with trace less than or equal to 1. Let $\rho\approx_{\varepsilon}\sigma$ i.e. they are close in some distance, such as the trace distance. ...
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### Does $\frac{\Pi_A\otimes I_B}{\text{Tr}((\Pi_A\otimes I_B)\rho_{AB})}\rho_{AB}=\rho_{AB}$ hold for a state $\rho_{AB}$ and projector $\Pi_A$?

For some projector $\Pi_A$ and state $\rho_{AB}$, let $$\sigma_{AB} = \frac{\Pi_A\otimes I_B}{\text{Tr}((\Pi_A\otimes I_B)\rho_{AB})}\rho_{AB}$$ Is it the case that $\sigma_B = \rho_B$? It seems ...
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### Find the unitary implementing the transformation $|0\rangle\to\frac1{\sqrt2}(|0\rangle+|1\rangle),|1\rangle\to\frac1{\sqrt2}(|0\rangle-|1\rangle)$ [closed]

I have found a question for finding the Unitary operator for the following transformation: I found the solution as well. But I didn't understand how they got the solution!
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All observables admit a spectral decomposition in terms of projectors $P_m$ into the eigenspace corresponding to the eigenvalue $m$. So given for example a collection of kets $|0\rangle, |1\rangle,...,... 4 votes 1 answer 255 views ### How do I prove that$P_\pm=\frac12(1\pm U)$if$U^2=I$? Suppose I have an$n$-qubit Hermitian operator$U$such that$U^2=I$. The projection operators with eigenvalue$+1$and$−1$are$P_+$and$P_-$. How can I prove that$P_+=\frac{1}{2}(1+U)$and$P_-=\... 1 vote
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### How to project a composite system down into a smaller subspace in Python?

If we have a composite system over five qubits ($|\psi\rangle = |a\rangle|b\rangle|c\rangle|d\rangle|e\rangle$), and I want to project into a specific subspace of the first three systems, I can build ...
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### Can we characterise how correlated the expectation values associated with a pair of observables are?

Consider a state $\rho$ and two observables $P$ and $Q$. Is there a good way to characterise how correlated the associated expectation values are? Be it in terms of mutual information or something ...
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### What can I conclude about $\langle \phi|\pi_1\pi_2|\phi\rangle$ if $\langle \phi|\pi_i|\phi\rangle\ge e$?

If I have two projectors $\pi_1, \pi_2$ such that for some $|{\phi}\rangle$: $\langle {\phi}| \pi_1 |{\phi}\rangle \geq e$ and $\langle {\phi}| \pi_2 | {\phi}\rangle \geq e$ What can I conclude about ...
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### Bob applies a projector - what happens to eigenvalues of Alice's reduced state?

Suppose Alice and Bob share a state $\rho_{AB}$. Let us denote the reduced states as $\rho_A = \text{Tr}_B(\rho_{AB})$ and $\rho_B = \text{Tr}_A(\rho_{AB})$. Bob applies a projector so the new global ...
1 vote
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### How to code a projector operator in qiskit?

I'm new to qiskit and I want to know how do I define a projector operator in qiskit? Specifically, I have prepared a 3 qubit system, and after applying a whole lot of gates and measuring it in a state ...
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### What's the observable when measuring multiple qubits in the computational basis?

In Nielsen and Chuang (Quantum Computing and Quantum Information) the following definition is given to a projective measurement: Projective measurements are described by an observable $M$: M = \...
Background Assume we have a density matrix $\rho$ of a sub-ensemble. However, we have an imperfect measuring instrument. While it does perform a measurement, we do not know exactly when it performs ...
This is related to exercise 4.34, The operation described can be written as $(H \otimes I)C^1(U)(H \otimes I)(|0\rangle \otimes |\psi\rangle)$ I can get to the point where the state of the system is ...