# Questions tagged [probability]

For questions associated with the calculation of probability, expected value, variance, standard deviation, or similar statistical quantities.

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### What is the probability $\Pr(\|U-I\|_{\rm op}<\varepsilon)$ of a Haar-random unitary being close to the identity?

If one generates an $n\times n$ Haar random unitary $U$, then clearly $\Pr(U=I)=0$. However, for every $\epsilon>0$, the probability $$\Pr(\|U-I\|_{\rm op}<\varepsilon)$$ should be positive. How ...
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### What does $M_m |\psi_i\rangle$ mean in the equation $p(m|i)=\langle\psi_i|M_m^\dagger M_m|\psi_i\rangle$?

I have trouble understanding two equations in the Nielsen & Chuang textbook. Suppose we perform a measurement described by the operator $M_m$. If the initial state is $|\psi_i\rangle$, then the ...
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### Quantum Amplitude Estimation vs Quantum Phase Estimation

Quick question concerning the probability of success after a phase estimation algorithm vs an amplitude estimation algorithm. Given the calculation on the wikipedia page, the probability of measuring ...
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### Spoofing XQUATH with the Feynman method

Consider the XQUATH conjecture for random quantum circuits, as mentioned here. (XQUATH, or Linear Cross-Entropy Quantum Threshold Assumption). There is no polynomial-time classical algorithm that ...
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### How to find the POVM that optimally distinguishes between two given states?

A quantum state preparation machine emits a state $\rho_0$ with probability $2/3$ and emits the state $\rho_1$ with probability $1/3$. We aim to make the best guess which one is it using a set of two ...
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### Why do probablity distribution with orthogonal suppor have maximal Kolmogorov distance?

Can anyone explain why the $l_1$ distance has the property that probability distributions $P,Q$ with orthogonal support (meaning that the product $p_iq_i$ vanishes for each value of $i$) are at a ...
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### In QAOA why do we need $m \log(m)$ repititions to get at least $F_{p}(\beta , \gamma) - 1$ with probability of $1 - 1/m$?

In the original QAOA paper from Farhi https://arxiv.org/pdf/1411.4028.pdf, it is stated in chapter 2 last paragraph (page 6) that: when measuring $F_{p}(\beta , \gamma)$ we get an outcome of at least ...
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### Nielsen & Chuang Exercise 6.13: Standard deviation of classical counting algorithm

$\newcommand{\expectation}[1]{\mathop{\mathbb{E}} \left[ #1 \right] } \newcommand{\Var}{\mathrm{Var}}$ From Nielsen & Chuang 10th edition page 261: Consider a classical algorithm for the counting ...
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### How to interpret complex probability of superposition state?

I have one qubit and I apply two gates to it: H and T, which yields the following superposition: $$\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} |0\rangle + \frac{1+i}{2}|1\rangle$$ Now I want to calculate probability of 0 ...
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### Hamiltonian simulation: how can I incorporate the constant before each term?

I got another follow-up question about Hamiltonian simulation from the previous post: if I perform the controlled time-evolution of the Hamiltonian:  H_{3} = \alpha\ X_1\otimes Y_2 + \beta \ Z_1\...
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### Find probability of a single qubit's measurement results from a 5 qubit state

I have a tensor product of a 5 qubit state $|h\rangle$. From this I want to calculate the probability of the 2nd qubit being in state $|1\rangle$. Can someone show me how I can do this? I know I can ...
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### How is the probability of success for Simon's algorithm determined?

In step 3 of Simon's algorithm, we are told to "Repeat until there are enough such $y$’s that we can classically solve for $s$." It then goes on: The above are from this course notes. I am ...
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### Given averages of powers of position and momentum in quantum mechanics what information can be secured about the wave-function?

Question If I tell you all the averages of powers of position and momentum in quantum mechanics can you tell me the value of the wave-function? What can you tell me about the wavefunction? Is there ...
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### How to prove that the mutual information is subadditive?

Let $\mathbf x=(x_1,...,x_n)$ and $\mathbf y=(y_1,...,y_n)$ be two vectors of random variables. To make things concrete, assume that Alice sends each component $x_j$ through a noisy channel to Bob, ...
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### Marginal output probability of first bit for constant-depth circuits

Consider a constant depth $1\text{D}$ quantum circuit, which is applied to the input state $|0^{n}\rangle$, and whose output is measured in the standard basis. You can assume that the gates of the ...
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### Relation between approximate counting and sampling

Consider the following statement of Stockmeyer counting theorem. Given as input a function $f:\{0, 1\}^{n} \rightarrow \{0, 1\}^{m}$ and $y \in \{0, 1\}^{m}$, there is a procedure that runs in ...
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### What is the relation between density matrices and phase-space probability distributions?

According to its tag description, a density matrix is the quantum-mechanical analogue to a phase-space probability measure (probability distribution of position and momentum) in classical statistical ...
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### Properties of frames in quasiprobability representation

Let $\mathbb{C}^{d}$ be a complex Euclidean space. Let $\mathsf{H}(\mathbb{C}^{d})$ be the set of all Hermitian operators, mapping vectors from $\mathbb{C}^{d}$ to $\mathbb{C}^{d}$. I had some ...
If the initial state of $|x_0\rangle = \alpha |0\rangle + \beta |1\rangle$ and $|x_1\rangle =|0\rangle$, and the final state at the barrier is $|10\rangle$ (in the form $|x_1x_0\rangle$), what would ...