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Questions tagged [probability]

For questions associated with the calculation of probability, expected value, variance, standard deviation, or similar statistical quantities.

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In QAOA why do we need $m \log(m)$ repetitions to get at least $F_{p}(\beta , \gamma) - 1$ with probability of $1 - 1/m$?

In the original QAOA paper from Farhi https://arxiv.org/pdf/1411.4028.pdf, it is stated in chapter 2 last paragraph (page 6) that: when measuring $F_{p}(\beta , \gamma)$ we get an outcome of at least ...
Hannah's user avatar
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4 votes
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Kolmogorov dilations of positive definite kernels and Donsker's Delta

I'm having problems understanding a part of the proof of Kolmogorov’s dilation theorem (Theorem 3.2 given in this). We define a map $V_K:S\to H$ given by $V_K(x):=\delta_x+N$. Then, we compute the ...
Manuel E's user avatar
4 votes
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132 views

Probability inequality for Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA)

In arXiv:2207.14734 the authors claim that it is "straightforward to show that" their equation 8 holds: $$\mathrm{Pr}_{x\sim q}[x:f(x)\geq \mu] \geq \frac{1}{M}$$ where we have an objective ...
Juri V's user avatar
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Is there a general framework that allows us to compare probabilistic and deterministic algorithms fairly?

Many popular QC algorithms are probabilistic in nature, like Grover's, Shor's, QAOA ..etc For some of these we have formulas that give probabilities of success (like for Grover's and Shor's), and for ...
bubakazouba's user avatar
4 votes
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139 views

Schur transform and the outcome probabilities for a particular type of state

I was reading about the Schur transform and its applications in knowing about an unknown quantum state. Consider $\rho^{\otimes k}$, which means $k$ copies of an unknown $n$ qubit quantum density ...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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2 votes
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79 views

Probability that a quantum state is in the typical subspace of another quantum state

From the properties of the Typical subspace we already have the following theorem [1]: Theorem (Unit Probability, see [1] page 467): Suppose that we perform a typical subspace measurement of a state $...
IamKnull's user avatar
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Grover with randomized oracle

I'm sorry if this is a stupid question. I want to know about the behavior of Grover's algorithm with oracle having a low one-sided probability of error. So if $f(x)=0$ my oracle returns $0$ and if $f(...
ivmihajlin's user avatar
2 votes
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138 views

Density matrix and State vector give different result in mesolve in QuTiP

qutip mesolve gives me different population evolve depending on that initial state is state vector or density matrix. And, in some situation, it gives me negative population. It doesn't make sense... ...
eechiki's user avatar
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2 votes
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Given a unitary $U_p:|0\rangle\to\sum_\omega\sqrt{P(\omega)}|\omega\rangle$, what does $|0\rangle$ represent exactly?

Consider a random variable $X$ on a probability space $(\Omega, 2^\Omega, P)$. Let $H_\Omega$ be a Hilbert space with basis states ${| \omega \rangle}_{\omega \in \Omega}$, and fix a unitary $U_P$ ...
Simon's user avatar
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Distribution of partial trace of Haar unitary

I am sure this must have been covered in the mathematical literature, but hoping someone can direct me to the right place. Let us be given random unitaries $U$ on $n$ qubits (so dimension of the space ...
nervxxx's user avatar
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Distinguishing $n$ pure states in an $n$ dimensional Hilbert space

Suppose we have $n$ pure states in an $n$ dimensional Hilbert space, and we would like to distinguish them using POVM or PVM. We get any one of the pure states with equal probability, and we may set ...
Stan's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
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Marginal output probability of first bit for constant-depth circuits

Consider a constant depth $1\text{D}$ quantum circuit, which is applied to the input state $|0^{n}\rangle$, and whose output is measured in the standard basis. You can assume that the gates of the ...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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2 votes
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154 views

Relation between approximate counting and sampling

Consider the following statement of Stockmeyer counting theorem. Given as input a function $f:\{0, 1\}^{n} \rightarrow \{0, 1\}^{m}$ and $y \in \{0, 1\}^{m}$, there is a procedure that runs in ...
BlackHat18's user avatar
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1 vote
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Semi-Definite Program to maximise $P(X)$ with a fixed CHSH value

This question should be theoretically simple, yet I'm struggling as something may be incorrect about my code. I am trying to plot a graph of the maximum probability ($P(x)$) of a given system against ...
Largecooler21's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
147 views

How to calculate probability of measuring $|1\rangle$ after application of $R_x$ gate

I was trying to understand how to calculate the probability of measuring $|1\rangle$ when executing the following circuit in Qiskit: ...
Khilesh Chauhan's user avatar
1 vote
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51 views

Saturating an inequality relating the operator norm and the total variation distance

Let $U$ be an $n$-qubit unitary, and let $p_U(x) = |\langle x | U | 0\rangle |^2$ be the probability of obtaining $x \in \{0,1\}^n$ on the all zero input. Given two $n$-qubit unitaries $U$ and $V$, it ...
trillianhaze's user avatar
1 vote
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Improving operator norm bound on total variation distance

Let $U$ be an $n$-qubit unitary and $P_U(x) = |\langle x |U|0^n\rangle|$ the probability of measuring $x$ after acting $U$ on $|0^n\rangle$. For two $n$-qubit unitaries $U$ and $V$, one can prove that ...
trillianhaze's user avatar
1 vote
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63 views

How to implement the Mach Zehnder Interferometer in Qutip?

I was trying to implement the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer with a phase shifter in Qutip but I couldn't nail it. I just want to give two number states as input and at the end see the probability ...
can kanaroğlu's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
57 views

Close in operator norm imply close in weak multiplicative sense?

Fix $\epsilon > 0$, and suppose $U$ and $S$ are $n$ qubit unitaries such that $\| U - S \| \leq \epsilon$ (operator norm). Furthermore, let $P_U(y \mid x) = |\langle y | U | x \rangle|^2$ be the ...
trillianhaze's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
94 views

I am optimising a variational quantum circuit to learn a distribution $p(x)$, but it doesn't converge over a training set $\mathcal{X}$?

I am training a variational quantum circuit to learn distributions: given data $s(\vec{\lambda})$, what is the probability distribution for the parameterisation $\vec{\lambda}$, i.e. the posterior ...
JoJo's user avatar
  • 99
1 vote
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163 views

Finding the Exact Probability Distribution for the Outcomes of a Quantum Circuit with Mid-Circuit Measurements

I would like to find the exact probabilities of the possible outcomes of a circuit that includes mid-circuit measurements. So, as a specific example, consider the following circuit: I would like to ...
user206444's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
52 views

Is this inequality related to time-energy uncertainty true or testable?

Background It is known: In all physical systems in which energy is bounded below, there is no self-adjoint observable that tracks the time parameter t. However I don't think this forbids any ...
More Anonymous's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
343 views

What is the relation between density matrices and phase-space probability distributions?

According to its tag description, a density matrix is the quantum-mechanical analogue to a phase-space probability measure (probability distribution of position and momentum) in classical statistical ...
develarist's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
54 views

Where is my mistake in using a measurement operator instead of Born’s rule to calculate the probability of detecting photons at an arbitrary angle?

As I asked in this question: How can I calculate the measuring probabilities of a two qubit state along a certain axis? From here I know how to calculate the probability of measuring a general state ...
Alex1111's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
24 views

How can I find the probabilities corresponding to measurement results of an observable of the GHZ states?

I'm working on a problem involving the calculation of probabilities for outcomes of a measurement on a quantum state perturbed by an error. The state in question is a GHZ state $|\text{GHZ}\rangle = \...
Alex1111's user avatar