Questions tagged [probability]

For questions associated with the calculation of probability, expected value, variance, standard deviation, or similar statistical quantities.

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What does $M_m |\psi_i\rangle$ mean in the equation $p(m|i)=\langle\psi_i|M_m^\dagger M_m|\psi_i\rangle$?

I have trouble understanding two equations in the Nielsen & Chuang textbook. Suppose we perform a measurement described by the operator $M_m$. If the initial state is $|\psi_i\rangle$, then the ...
3
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1answer
148 views

Question regarding integration of Haar random state

I am trying to understand the integration on page 4 of this paper. Consider a Haar random circuit $C$ and a fixed basis $z$. Each output probability of a Haar random circuit (given by $|\langle z | C |...