# Questions tagged [povm]

For questions related to positive-operator valued measures (POVMs), that is, sets of positive semi-definite operators summing to the identity matrix.

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### Niemark's theorem - simulating POVMs with PVMs

I am having trouble understanding Niemark's theorem from books (e.g watrous). The wikipedia page is clearer but most calculations are not justified. I want to contruct the PVM associated with the ...
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### Are POVM elements invertible?

A POVM is a set $\mathcal{M} = \{A_i : A_i \geq 0, \sum{A_i }= \mathbf{I}\}_{i=1}^m$ on a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}^d$ of dimension $d$, I want to know whether $A_i$ can be invertible linear map?
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### Are projective measurements the only optimal measurements to discriminate between two states?

Consider two density matrices $\rho$ and $\sigma$. The task is to distinguish between these two states, given one of them --- you do not know beforehand which one. There is an optimal measurement to ...
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### How can we derive the form of POVMs on a subspace from a projective measurement on a larger space?

Suppose we have the Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}_{0}$ describing the states of the system $s$, and the Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}_{e}$ describing the states of the environment. I have seen that [1][2], ...
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### Given a POVM, what's the channel that optimally preserves coherence in the post-measurement outcomes?

It is well-known that a POVM $\boldsymbol\mu\equiv (\mu_a)_{a\in\Sigma}$ describes outcome probabilities, but not post-measurement outcomes, which in many scenarios exist and are of interest. To ...
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### What is a POVM?

I am having a hard time understanding what exactly a Measurement is by its definition? What I read is that a POVM $M$ is defined by its set of elements $M_i$. So is $M$ itself an operator? In circuit ...
Suppose there are two fixed density matrices $\rho_1$ and $\rho_2$ are prepared for equal probability. Can we say something about the minimum number of measurements required to distinguish the two ...