Questions tagged [povm]

For questions related to positive-operator valued measures (POVMs), that is, sets of positive semi-definite operators summing to the identity matrix.

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Distinguishing $n$ pure states in an $n$ dimensional Hilbert space

Suppose we have $n$ pure states in an $n$ dimensional Hilbert space, and we would like to distinguish them using POVM or PVM. We get any one of the pure states with equal probability, and we may set ...
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Why is $\| M|\psi\rangle \| \leq 1$ for POVM $M$?

In this question‘s answer it is mentioned that $\| M|\psi\rangle \| \leq 1$ for POVM Element $M$. I don‘t get why this is. My thoughts so far: for the set of POVM elements $\{M_a\}$ we know that all $...
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What does distinguishability mean in this case?

In a lecture, we were given the following example to explain the operational significance of the trace distance. Suppose that Alice prepares one of two (known) states $\rho_0$ or $\rho_1$ with equal ...
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Can any rank-$n$ POVM be realized as a rank-one POVM?

Let, $\mathcal{M}$ is a POVM measurement whose elements are $M_i=\sum_{k=1}^np_{ki}|\phi_{ki}\rangle\langle\phi_{ki}|$ with $p_{ki}\geq 0$ and $\sum_{i=1}^sM_i=I$ where $|\phi_{ki}\rangle$ is a ...
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Characterise, via Naimark's theorem, the POVM corresponding to a PVM in a dilated space

Let $F\equiv\{F^a\}_a$ be a POVM in some finite-dimensional Hilbert space $\mathcal X$. It is well-known that one can always understand $F$ as a projective measurement (PVM) in an isometrically ...
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Confusion regarding Neumark's/Naimark's extension of POVM

Starting with the definitions used. A PVM is a set $\mathcal{P} = \{P_i: P_i^2 = P_i, P_iP_j = \delta_{ij}P_j, \sum{P_i} = \mathbf{I}\}_{i,j=1}^n$, where $n\leq d$ on a Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}^d$ ...
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Is there a construction and/or term for the following 'sandwich' measurement?

Suppose we have two projective measurements with elements $E_i$, $i=1...m$, and $F_j$, $j=1...n$. So we know $F_j^2=F_j$ and $E_i^2=E_i$ and $\sum_i E_i = \sum_j F_j = \mathbb{I}$. Then it is easy to ...
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Helstrom Measurement when two quantum states are close

I've been reading a paper about Entangled-quantum GAN (see this PDF) and wondering why descriptions below Eq.(3) in the paper are in fact true. To summarize the description, suppose we have two ...
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How to distinguish between two very similar pure quantum states?

I'm trying to prove the claim that Given two pure states: $|\psi_i\rangle$ and $|\phi_i\rangle$ such that $|\,|\psi_i\rangle - |\phi_i\rangle\,|\le \delta$ then no measurement can distinguish ...
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Are measurement probabilities on the two qubits of a maximally entangled state equal? [closed]

Suppose we get the Bell state $$ |\Phi ^{+}\rangle ={\frac {1}{{\sqrt {2}}}}(|0\rangle _{A}\otimes |0\rangle _{B}+|1\rangle _{A}\otimes |1\rangle _{B}). $$ If we now apply a unitary operator $U$ ...
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Show that there are unitaries $U_m$ such that $M_m=U_m \sqrt{E_m}$, for any measurement $M_m$ and associated POVM $E_m$

Nielsen and Chuang's QCQI, section 2.2.6, page 92, asks Suppose a measurement is described by measurement operators $M_m$. Show that there exist unitary operators $U_m$ such that $M_m=U_m\sqrt{E_m}$, ...
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Are SIC-POVMs optimal for quantum state reconstruction?

Mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) are pairs of orthonormal bases $\{u_j\}_j,\{v_j\}_j\in\mathbb C^N$ such that $$|\langle u_j,v_k\rangle|= \frac{1}{\sqrt N},$$ for all $j,k=1,...,N$. These are useful for ...
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Are projective measurements the only optimal measurements to discriminate between two states?

Consider two density matrices $\rho$ and $\sigma$. The task is to distinguish between these two states, given one of them --- you do not know beforehand which one. There is an optimal measurement to ...
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How does the extremality of a POVM reflect on its Naimark dilation isometry?

Let $\mu:\Sigma\to\mathrm{Pos}(\mathcal X)$ be some POVM, with $\Sigma$ the finite set of possible outcomes, and $\mathrm{Pos}(\mathcal X)$ the set of positive semidefinite operators on a finite-...
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Does a basis of maximally entangled states exist for two-qubit or two-qutrit system so that the density matrices of the basis states don't commute?

I want to find a basis of maximally entangled states $|\Psi_i\rangle$, for $\mathcal{H}^{2} \otimes \mathcal{H}^{2}$ and, $\mathcal{H}^{3} \otimes \mathcal{H}^{3}$ such that the density matrices of ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Umambiguous discrimination using POVM with highest discriminate probability

I was studying Nielsen&Chuang's textbook (about page 92), and come up with a question that I cannot solve it. Given one of the two state $|\psi_1\rangle=|0\rangle$ and $|\psi_2\rangle=\frac{1}{\...
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Moving between $\sum_{I}E_{i}=I$ and $\sum_{i}M^{\dagger}M=I$ for non-hermitian $M$

If $\sum_{i}E_{i}=I$ is a set of POVM's and $\sum_{i}M^{\dagger}M=I$ is a set of general measurement operators, I have always been confused on how to move from one to the other, in regards to the ...
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What are examples of extremal non-projective POVMs?

Fix some finite-dimensional space $\mathcal X$. Define a POVM as a collection of positive operators summing to the identity: $\mu\equiv \{\mu(a):a\in\Sigma\}\subset{\rm Pos}(\mathcal X)$ such that $\...
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2 votes
3 answers
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Why are entanglement breaking channels, defined as $\Phi(\rho)=\sum_a \operatorname{Tr}(\mu(a)\rho)\sigma_a$, entanglement breaking?

Define an entanglement breaking channel $\Phi$ as a channel (CPTP map) of the form $$\Phi(\rho) = \sum_a \operatorname{Tr}(\mu(a)\rho) \sigma_a\tag A$$ for some POVM $\{\mu(a)\}_a$ and states $\...
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What does the POVM corresponding to single-qubit state tomography look like?

Let $\rho$ be a single-qubit state. A standard way to characterise $\rho$ is to measure the expectation values of the Pauli matrices, that is, to perform projective measurements in the three mutually ...
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6 votes
2 answers
446 views

What is the relation between POVMs and observables (as Hermitian operators)?

Let $\renewcommand{\calH}{{\mathcal{H}}}\calH$ be a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. An observable $A$ is here a Hermitian operator, $A\in\mathrm{Herm}(\calH)$. A POVM is here a collection of ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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How to find the POVM that optimally distinguishes between two given states?

A quantum state preparation machine emits a state $\rho_0$ with probability $2/3$ and emits the state $\rho_1$ with probability $1/3$. We aim to make the best guess which one is it using a set of two ...
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3 votes
0 answers
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Is there some notion of work associated with performing a measurement?

Let a measurement be described by POVM elements $M_i$ such that probability $p(i) = Tr[\rho M_i]$ for some state $\rho$. I want to know whether there is some notion of work associated with such ...
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1 answer
168 views

How to express a probability distribution $P(x,y,z)= \sum_\lambda P(x|y,\lambda)P(y|\lambda,z)P(z)P(\lambda)$ in terms of a trace of a density matrix?

I have been given and expression for a probability distribution $$P(x,y,z)= \sum_\lambda P(x|y,\lambda)P(y|\lambda,z)P(z)P(\lambda)$$ and I have been asked to show that the above expression can be ...
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What additional conditions are there to make POVM measurement same as projective measurement?

We know that POVMs are applied in the more general cases where the system is not necessarily closed. So mathematically, how does going from open to closed system change the scenario in case of POVM so ...
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2 answers
190 views

What is the relation between observables (as defined in the measure-theoretic framework) and POVMs?

A POVM is typically defined as a collection of operators $\{\mu(a)\}_{a\in\Sigma}$ with $\mu(a)\in\mathrm{Pos}(\mathcal X)$ positive operators such that $\sum_{a\in\Sigma}\mu(a)=I$, where I take here $...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What are the matrices in the POVM for measuring the first $m$ qubits?

Suppose you have a quantum state $|w\rangle$ consisting of $m + n$ qubits, and you set up a measurement that measures the first $m$ qubits in the standard basis. What are the matrices in the ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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How to define POVM measurement operators for a composite quantum state

I have an evolved quantum composite state $\hat{\rho}^{\otimes{N}}$ that I retrieved from a quantum channel $\mathcal{E}$, Now I do know how to define a POVM for the evolved states $\hat{\rho}$ that ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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What does it mean "the N uses of classical-quantum channel"?

I was reading a paper Quantum Polar codes by Mark M. Wilde, where he discusses the N uses of the channel in the classical-quantum channel setting. What does he mean by "multiple channel uses"...
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3 votes
1 answer
833 views

How do I efficiently implement a POVM using a fixed universal gate set and the ability to measure in the standard basis?

Let's say I am given a Hamiltonian \begin{equation} H = \sum_{i = 1}^{m} H_{i}, \end{equation} where $H$ acts on $n$-qubits, and each $H_{i}$ acts non-trivially on at most $k$ qubits. The eigenvalues ...
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5 votes
1 answer
479 views

What are examples of non-trivial POVM measurements?

We know that generalized (POVM) measurement is defined by matrices $M_i$ which are Positive semidefinite Add up to a unit matrix, $\sum_i M_i = \mathbb{I}$ and the probability of obtaining outcome $...
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3 votes
1 answer
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How do you embed a POVM matrix in a Unitary?

In QuantumKatas Measurement Task 2.3 - Peres-Wooter's Game, we are given 3 states A,B and C. We construct a POVM of these states. But how do we convert that POVM into a Unitary that we can apply. ...
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3 answers
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Why are POVMs useful? Are they just an axiomatic way to define measurement?

I know the definition of projective measurement, generalized measurement, POVM. I understand the usage of generalized measurement for the reason that it can model experiments "easier" (for example ...
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5 votes
2 answers
265 views

Give an explicit example of a $d = 4$ SIC-POVM

For $q=e^{2 \pi i/3}$, the set of $d^2$ vectors ($d=3$) \begin{equation} \left( \begin{array}{ccc} 0 & 1 & -1 \\ 0 & 1 & -q \\ 0 & 1 & -q^2 \\ -1 & 0 & 1 \\ -q &...
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6 votes
2 answers
386 views

Are three POVM measurements on a single qubit physically realizable?

In Nielsen and Chuang Quantum Computation and Quantum Information book section 2.2.6, a POVM of three elements are used to measure a single qubit in order to know for sure whether the state is $|0\...
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4 votes
2 answers
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What is the relation between POVMs and projective measurements?

I'm a little confused about the terminology of measurement. So say that we have the single qubit state $|\phi \rangle=c_0|0\rangle+c_1|1\rangle$. If we perform the projective measurement $P_0=|0\...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Does the dilation in Naimark's theorem produce a state?

A POVM, as defined for example in (Peres and Wooters 1991), is defined by a set of positive operators $\mu(a)$ satisfying $\sum_a \mu(a)=\mathbb 1$. We do not require the $\mu(a)$ to be projectors, ...
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5 votes
1 answer
364 views

What is an example of a measurement that is LOCC but not separable?

Could you give me an example of a measurement which is separable but not LOCC (Local Operations Classical Communication)? Given an ensable of states $\rho^{N}$, a separable measurement on it is a POVM ...
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4 votes
2 answers
185 views

POVM three-qubit circuit for symmetric quantum states

I have been reading this paper but don't yet understand how to implement a circuit to determine in which state the qubit is not for a cyclic POVM. More specifically, I want to implement a cyclic POVM ...
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13 votes
1 answer
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What is the Helstrom measurement?

I have been reading the paper Belief propagation decoding of quantum channels by passing quantum messages by Joseph Renes for decoding Classical-Quantum channels and I have crossed with the concept of ...
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