# Questions tagged [povm]

For questions related to positive-operator valued measures (POVMs), that is, sets of positive semi-definite operators summing to the identity matrix.

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### Finding the "dual" basis of an overcomplete basis for Quantum State Tomography

This question is related to this stack exchange post: What does the POVM corresponding to single-qubit state tomography look like? From what I understand, when we are interested in reconstructing a ...
1 vote
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### Is $Tr[E_i E_j] \geq 0$ for $i\neq j$ and $\{E_k\}$ a POVM?

Suppose that $\{E_i\}$ form a POVM (i.e. a set of positive operators satisfying $\sum_{i} E_i = I$, where $I$ denotes identity). Is it the case that $Tr[E_i E_j] \geq 0$ for all $i \neq j$?
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### Can two measurements be represented as a single measurement when they are acted upon sequentially?

Let two different POVM measurements represent as $\mathcal{M}_1=\{\Pi_i\}_{i=1}^k$ where $\Pi_i$ is element of the $\mathcal{M}_1$ measurement and $\mathcal{M}_2=\{E_j\}_{j=1}^n$ where $E_j$ is the ...
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### What are examples where the quantum discord is achieved by a non-projective POVM?

Consider the (asymmetric) quantum discord, defined as (borrowing notation from Eq. 4.13c of Zurek's review): $$\mathcal D(\mathcal S:\mathcal A) = I(\mathcal S:\mathcal A) - \chi(\rho_{\mathcal A}),$$ ...
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### Prove that the square root measurement $\Lambda_y=\frac14(\rho_{B^3})^{-\frac12}|\psi_y\rangle\langle\psi_y|(\rho_{B^{3}})^{-\frac{1}{2}}$ is a POVM

Consider $\textit{X}\sim \mathrm{Unif}([0,1,2,3]), |\mathcal{Y}|=|\mathcal{X}|=4$. Also for every random variable realization {\it x} we use three parallel quantum channels like the one employed ...
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### POVM construction with little input information

Let $E$ be part of a POVM $M = \{E,I-E\}$. Suppose that I know that $E = f(\rho_1, \rho_2)$. Suppose also that those two states are provided but we only know their type (dimension) and we also know $f$...
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### Given a POVM, what's the channel that optimally preserves coherence in the post-measurement outcomes?

It is well-known that a POVM $\boldsymbol\mu\equiv (\mu_a)_{a\in\Sigma}$ describes outcome probabilities, but not post-measurement outcomes, which in many scenarios exist and are of interest. To ...
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### What is the most general way to describe post-measurement states?

Background Generally speaking, the description of post-measurement states associated with a POVM seems to always pass through, in some form or another, the formalism of Kraus operators. For example: ...
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### Given a state $\rho$ and operator $0\le \Lambda\le I$, what does $\sqrt\Lambda \rho \sqrt\Lambda$ represent?

An expression that is found in a good number of results is $\sqrt\Lambda\rho\sqrt\Lambda$, for some pair of positive semidefinite operators $\rho,\Lambda\ge0$. For example, in the gentle operator ...
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### Distinguishing $n$ pure states in an $n$ dimensional Hilbert space

Suppose we have $n$ pure states in an $n$ dimensional Hilbert space, and we would like to distinguish them using POVM or PVM. We get any one of the pure states with equal probability, and we may set ...
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1 vote
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### Moving between $\sum_{I}E_{i}=I$ and $\sum_{i}M^{\dagger}M=I$ for non-hermitian $M$

If $\sum_{i}E_{i}=I$ is a set of POVM's and $\sum_{i}M^{\dagger}M=I$ is a set of general measurement operators, I have always been confused on how to move from one to the other, in regards to the ...
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### What does the POVM corresponding to single-qubit state tomography look like?

Let $\rho$ be a single-qubit state. A standard way to characterise $\rho$ is to measure the expectation values of the Pauli matrices, that is, to perform projective measurements in the three mutually ...
1k views

### What is the relation between POVMs and observables (as Hermitian operators)?

Let $\renewcommand{\calH}{{\mathcal{H}}}\calH$ be a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. An observable $A$ is here a Hermitian operator, $A\in\mathrm{Herm}(\calH)$. A POVM is here a collection of ...
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### How to find the POVM that optimally distinguishes between two given states?

A quantum state preparation machine emits a state $\rho_0$ with probability $2/3$ and emits the state $\rho_1$ with probability $1/3$. We aim to make the best guess which one is it using a set of two ...
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### Is there some notion of work associated with performing a measurement?

Let a measurement be described by POVM elements $M_i$ such that probability $p(i) = Tr[\rho M_i]$ for some state $\rho$. I want to know whether there is some notion of work associated with such ...
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### How to express a probability distribution $P(x,y,z)= \sum_\lambda P(x|y,\lambda)P(y|\lambda,z)P(z)P(\lambda)$ in terms of a trace of a density matrix?

I have been given and expression for a probability distribution $$P(x,y,z)= \sum_\lambda P(x|y,\lambda)P(y|\lambda,z)P(z)P(\lambda)$$ and I have been asked to show that the above expression can be ...
A POVM is typically defined as a collection of operators $\{\mu(a)\}_{a\in\Sigma}$ with $\mu(a)\in\mathrm{Pos}(\mathcal X)$ positive operators such that $\sum_{a\in\Sigma}\mu(a)=I$, where I take here \$...