# Questions tagged [pauli-gates]

For questions about Pauli matrices in general or Pauli gates in particular, as relevant to quantum computing and/or quantum information theory. The Pauli matrices are a set of three 2 × 2 complex matrices which are Hermitian and unitary. The three Pauli gates are: Pauli-X gate, Pauli-Y gate & Pauli-Z gate. X = {{0,1},{1,0}}; Y = {{0,-i},{i,0}}; Z = {{1,0},{0,-1}}.

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### controlled-Z rotation gates in symmetrical fashion

I was going through the qiskit textbook and in this chapter, i came across a statement under the topic "Kickback with the T-gate" related to the Controlled-Z gate that "the controlled-...
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### Benefit of phase shift in quantum computing

I am new to quantum computing. I compare Pauli-X gate and Pauli-Y gate as equivalent to NOT gate in classical computers. Though I am not very sure when to use Pauli-X and Pauli-Y gates as the result ...
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### What is the difference between the action of $Z$ and $\exp(-i Z t)$ on a state?

What is the difference between performing $Z$ operation and performing $e^{-i Zt}$ operation on a state, given that $e^{-i Zt}= \mathbb{1} + (-i Zt) + ...$ is not equal to $Z$ for any value of $t$?
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### VQE: Can I build a non-hermitian Hamiltonian with just Pauli matrices?

From the VQE paper they claim that a Hamiltonian can be expressed as a polynomial series of pauli operators (equation 1). While coding up VQE from scratch I made a function which would allow me to ...
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### Iterative qubit coupled cluster (iQCC) ansatz (Efficient screening procedure)

The paper Iterative Qubit Coupled Cluster approach with efficient screening of generators describes a new screening procedure for generators of the QCC ansatz. The paper states: 'In the absence of ...
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### Confusion about the state of a system after a measurement

I'm confused about the state of a system after a measurement. Say we have a particle $v$ in the state: $|\psi\rangle= \sqrt{1/4} \ |0\rangle + \sqrt{3/4} \ |1\rangle$. From my understanding, if one ...
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### How is partial trace related to operator sum representation?

In Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Nielsen and Chuang, the authors introduce operator sum representation in Section 8.2.3. They denote the evolution of a density matrix, when given an ...
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### How to build a circuit for simulation of a simple Hamiltonian?

Consider very simple Hamiltonian $\mathcal{H} = Z = \begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1\end{pmatrix}$. It has eigenvalues 1 and -1 with coresponding eigenstates $|0\rangle$ and $|1\rangle$, ...
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### What kind of transformation does the Y-gate do on the bloch sphere?

I'm going through "Quantum Computation & Quantum Information" by Michael A. Nielsen and Isaac L. Chuang, and as a high school student with no previous knowledge, I cannot understand some things ...
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### Effect of Pauli X gate on minus state using bloch sphere

As I understood, the X gate flips the state around : $X(|0\rangle) = |1\rangle$. It can also be visualized with a $\pi$ rotation around the $x$ axis in the Bloch sphere. I have no problem with that. ...
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### Example of Hamiltonian decomposition into Pauli matrices [closed]

I need to see an example of how Hamiltonian, i.e. any Hermitian matrix, can be decomposed into a linear combination of Pauli matrices. Please show me how this is written in Python. What I have tried ...
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### Why can I apply $HS^\dagger$ and then measure in the computational basis to measure $Y$?

I come from a CS background I was reading Neven and Farhi's paper ("Classification with Quantum Neural Networks on near Term Processors"), and I am trying to implement the subset parity problem using ...
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### Question Regarding Simulating Hamiltonian With Quantum Circuit

There have been a few other questions about this section of Nielsen and Chuang, but when working through the output of the circuit, there are some inconsistencies that are probably due to some mistep/...
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### Qiskit flipped representation of qubits in CNOT gate?

The conventional CNOT gate is shown on the right, and the Qiskit version is on the left. Since Qiskit defines it has a flipped representation kindly explain what is happening to the 11 position?
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### How is the ground state of a Hamiltonian defined?

I'm studying VQE, but there is something I don't get. We know (I think) that for a given Hamiltonian the minimum eigenvalue is associated with the ground state. But if we take the Hamiltonian to be ...
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### Gate Y returns wrong phase in IBM's circuit composer

One can check that, with IBM's circuit composer, $Y$ gate acted on $|0\rangle$ or on $|1\rangle$ returns the same phase of $\pi/2$. Is this a bug?
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### What does the notation $\sigma_j^z$ mean for Pauli matrices?

In multiples papers or online article on the QAOA algorithm (such as this one), I found notation for the Hamiltonian similar to this one : $$\sum_{ij} \frac{1}{2} (I-\sigma_i^z \sigma_j^z)$$ I don'...
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### Qubit in a mix sin/cosine state

The question is pretty simple. How can I get an input qubit $|0⟩$ in the state, say $$\cos{\frac{\pi}{10}}|0⟩ + \sin{\frac{\pi}{10}}|1⟩$$ Or any other sine/cosine mix state? Which gates do I need to ...