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Questions tagged [pauli-gates]

For questions about Pauli matrices in general or Pauli gates in particular, as relevant to quantum computing and/or quantum information theory. The Pauli matrices are a set of three 2 × 2 complex matrices which are Hermitian and unitary. The three Pauli gates are: Pauli-X gate, Pauli-Y gate & Pauli-Z gate. X = {{0,1},{1,0}}; Y = {{0,-i},{i,0}}; Z = {{1,0},{0,-1}}.

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Can arbitrary matrices be decomposed using the Pauli basis? [duplicate]

Is it possible to decompose a hermitian and unitrary matrix $A$ into the sum of the Pauli matrix Kronecker products? For example, I have a matrix 16x16 and want it to be decomposed into something ...
C-Roux's user avatar
  • 888
13 votes
1 answer
5k views

How can I decompose a matrix in terms of Pauli matrices?

I need to see an example of how Hamiltonian, i.e. any Hermitian matrix, can be decomposed into a linear combination of Pauli matrices. I would prefer an option to do this in larger than 2 dimensions, ...
yishairasowsky's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why can I apply $HS^\dagger$ and then measure in the computational basis to measure $Y$?

I come from a CS background I was reading Neven and Farhi's paper ("Classification with Quantum Neural Networks on near Term Processors"), and I am trying to implement the subset parity problem using ...
Skyris's user avatar
  • 137
20 votes
1 answer
5k views

Is the Pauli group for $n$-qubits a basis for $\mathbb{C}^{2^n\times 2^n}$?

The $n$-fold Pauli operator set is defined as $G_n=\{I,X,Y,Z \}^{\otimes n}$, that is as the set containing all the possible tensor products between $n$ Pauli matrices. It is clear that the Pauli ...
Josu Etxezarreta Martinez's user avatar
16 votes
3 answers
12k views

How to construct matrix of regular and "flipped" 2-qubit CNOT?

When constructing the matrices for the two CNOT based on the target and control qubit, I can use reasoning: "If $q_0$==$|0\rangle$, everything simply passes through", resulting in an Identity matrix ...
Thomas Hubregtsen's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
555 views

Can QAOA be considered as simulation of a quantum annealer on a gate-based quantum computer?

Quantum annealers are single purpose machines allowing to solve quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems. QUBO problems have following objective function: $$ F=-\sum_{i<j}J_{ij}...
Martin Vesely's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
3k views

Qiskit CNOT-gate matrix mixup?

In the qiskit textbook chapter 1.3.1 "The CNOT-Gate" it says that the matrix representation on the right is the own corresponding to the circuit shown above, with q_0 being the control and ...
Alvo's user avatar
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10 votes
2 answers
3k views

Definition of the Pauli group and the Clifford group

There seem to be two definitions of the Pauli group. In Nielsen and Chuang, the Pauli group on 1 qubit is defined as \begin{align*} \mathcal{P}_1 = \{\pm I, \pm iI, \pm X, \pm iX, \pm Y, \pm iY, \pm Z,...
snsunx's user avatar
  • 303
17 votes
1 answer
1k views

Obtaining gate $e^{-i\Delta t Z}$ from elementary gates

I am currently reading "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information" by Nielsen and Chuang. In the section about Quantum Simulation, they give an illustrative example (section 4.7.3), which I don't ...
brzepkowski's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
404 views

What are the relations between the permutation group and the Clifford group?

I'm trying to understand the relation between the permutation group on all the $2^n$ bitstrings and the Clifford group. My question arises from the fact that the Toffoli gate (which can be thought of ...
mavzolej's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
522 views

Shorthand notation for the sign flip gate

I need to use the following matrix gate in a quantum circuit: $$\text{Sign Flip}=\left[\begin{matrix}0 & -1 \\ -1 & 0\end{matrix}\right]$$ $\text{Sign Flip}$ can be decomposed as (in terms ...
Sanchayan Dutta's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
393 views

Simulate Hamiltonians with Pauli operations (controlled time evolution)

I had a question last week regarding the simulation of Hamiltonians composed of the sum of Pauli products: How can I simulate Hamiltonians composed of Pauli matrices? I'm having a follow-up question: ...
ZR-'s user avatar
  • 2,398
2 votes
1 answer
237 views

In Variational Quantum Eigensolvers, what does "grouping Pauli operators into tensor products requiring the same post-rotations" mean?

In this paper (nature version), the authors state We group the Pauli operators into tensor product basis sets that require the same post-rotations. As a result, they have the table S2 in the suppl. ...
fagd's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
609 views

How to build a circuit for simulation of a simple Hamiltonian?

Consider very simple Hamiltonian $\mathcal{H} = Z = \begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1\end{pmatrix}$. It has eigenvalues 1 and -1 with coresponding eigenstates $|0\rangle$ and $|1\rangle$, ...
Martin Vesely's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
937 views

What is (formally) a transversal operator?

This question concerns about a formal definition of transversal operator. I understood that transversal operator are a group of operators which are efficient in terms of circuit depth and can be used ...
Daniele Cuomo's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
263 views

Does conjugation by a Clifford send each non-identity Pauli to every other non-identity Pauli with equal frequency?

I see here in Olivia DeMatteo's notes, she states: When we consider the action of the entire Clifford group on a single non-identity Pauli, it maps that Pauli to each of the $d^2 − 1$ other possible ...
Quantum Guy 123's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
1k views

How to construct the two qubit gate generated by the Hamiltonian $H= X\otimes X + Y \otimes Y + Z \otimes Z $?

I know that the two qubit gate generated by $H=X\otimes X$ is $\exp\{-\text{i}\theta X\otimes X\}=\cos{\theta} \mathbb1 \otimes \mathbb1 - \text{i} \sin{\theta} X \otimes X$, where $X$ is the $\...
Nehad's user avatar
  • 81
6 votes
1 answer
455 views

Is there a non-Clifford gate preserving both $X$ and $Z$ errors?

I would like to know if there exists an $n$-qubit (for $n \geq 2$) quantum gate $G_n$ that preserves both $X$ and $Z$ errors and that is additionnally non-Clifford. In other words, I would like that $...
Marco Fellous-Asiani's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
607 views

Prove the fidelity can be written in terms of Pauli expectation values as ${\rm tr}(\rho\sigma)=\sum_k \chi_\rho(k)\chi_\sigma(\rho)$

I am reading through "Direct Fidelity Estimation from Few Pauli Measurements" and it states that the measure of fidelity between a desired pure state $\rho$ and an arbitrary state $\sigma$ ...
Quantum Guy 123's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
239 views

Getting intuition on the state-injection relations for the generalized $\exp(-iP \pi/8)$ $T$-gates (ideally using ZX calculus)

In Litinsky's paper, there are many circuits relations, like the one below. The left handside represents the "rotation" $\exp(-i P \phi)$ with $\phi=\pi/8$ with similar definitions for the ...
Marco Fellous-Asiani's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
465 views

In the Clifford group, is the center of $ \overline{\text{Cl}_n} \equiv\text{Cl}_n/U(1)$ trivial?

My question: Is the center of $ \overline{\text{Cl}_n} $ trivial? Recall that the algebra generated by the Pauli group is the full matrix algebra. So any matrix that commutes with the Pauli group must ...
Ian Gershon Teixeira's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
2k views

How can I simulate Hamiltonians composed of Pauli matrices?

Suppose I want to perform the time-evolution simulation on the following Hamiltonians: $$ H_{1} = X_1+ Y_2 + Z_1\otimes Z_2 \\ H_{2} = X_1\otimes Y_2 + Z_1\otimes Z_2 $$ Where $X,Y,Z$ are Pauli ...
ZR-'s user avatar
  • 2,398
4 votes
2 answers
266 views

How does a single-qubit gate affect other qubits?

An instructional quantum computing article I'm reading (How the quantum search algorithm works) states that the following circuit takes $\vert x\rangle\vert 0\rangle$ to $−\vert x\rangle\vert 0\rangle$...
forte's user avatar
  • 85
3 votes
2 answers
92 views

Commutation of $XX$ and $ZZ$ operators

It is known that the Pauli operators $XX$ and $ZZ$ commute. Consider the state $\vert{++}\rangle$ which is an eigenstate of $XX$. But we also know that $$ZZ\vert{++}\rangle = \vert{--}\rangle$$ so ...
Kieran's user avatar
  • 33
3 votes
2 answers
210 views

Expressing CNOT in the eigenbasis of $X$ (Preskill lecture notes eq. 7.6)

In chapter 7, equation 7.6 says CNOT works as follows: CNOT: $\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} (|0\rangle + |1\rangle )\otimes |x\rangle \rightarrow \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} (|0\rangle + (-1)^x |1\rangle ) \otimes |x\...
Blackwidow's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
141 views

Multi-qubit quantum channels in Pauli-Liouville basis: Tensor product of Pauli-Transfer Matrices?

I would like to verify something, need a sanity check. Are the quantum channels for different qubits in the Pauli-Liouville basis (Pauli Transfer Matrices) also given by a tensor product? The Kraus ...
Onur Danaci's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
220 views

Proof that $\frac{1}{d} | \text{Tr}(\mathcal{P}_i^\dagger \mathcal{E}(\mathcal{P}_j))| \leq 1$ for superoperators

I have two Pauli operators $\frac{1}{\sqrt{d}} \mathcal{P}_i$, $\frac{1}{\sqrt{d}} \mathcal{P}_j$, and an arbitrary quantum channel $\mathcal{E}$ (in the superoperator/Liouville representation) all ...
Jed Burkat's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
572 views

Question Regarding Simulating Hamiltonian With Quantum Circuit

There have been a few other questions about this section of Nielsen and Chuang, but when working through the output of the circuit, there are some inconsistencies that are probably due to some mistep/...
Rehaan Ahmad's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
215 views

Why can any density operator be written this way? (quantum tomography)

From page 24 of the thesis "Random Quantum States and Operators", where $(A,B)$ is the Hilbert-Schmidt inner product: \begin{aligned} \rho &=\left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} I, \rho\right) \frac{...
Quantum Guy 123's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
365 views

How does the stated Pauli decomposition for $\operatorname{CP\cdot A\cdot CP}$ arise?

I'm having a bit of trouble understand @DaftWullie's answer here. I understood that the $4\times 4$ matrix $A$ $$ \frac{1}{4} \left[\begin{matrix} 15 & 9 & 5 & -3 \\ 9 & 15 & 3 &...
Sanchayan Dutta's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
138 views

Correctability of X, Y, and Z Errors in Quantum Surface Codes and Color Codes

In surface codes and color codes, when the code distance is $d$, you can correct up to $[(d-1)/2]$ Pauli errors. I would like to know what this $[(d-1)/2]$ Pauli errors means for $X$, $Y$, and $Z$. ...
david's user avatar
  • 61
1 vote
2 answers
272 views

Check if a Pauli string belongs to a stabilizer tableau

Given a Pauli string and a stabilizer tableau, how do I know that the Pauli string belongs to the tableau, i.e. can be written as a product of strings already in the tableau. Thanks.
Dean's user avatar
  • 13
1 vote
1 answer
250 views

Calculate $\sqrt[4]{X}$ for the Pauli $X$ gate

I was trying to build a $cccx$ gate. According to this paper by Berenco et al., it requires a $\sqrt[4]{X}$ gate. Furthermore, I found another paper by Muradian and Frias with this formula: $$\sqrt A=\...
Syed Emad Uddin's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
159 views

Cannot interpret transformations on the bloch sphere as matrix multiplications

I understand that X,Y and Z gates are rotations around the axes with the respective letters, but I cannot understand how can Y gate multiply the amplitude of 0 with unreal number and have it landing ...
Mamamama's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
78 views

Convert Coherent Noise to Clifford Errors with Probability on Surface Codes

Following my question about the equivalence of coherent and no coherent error, in surface codes. Now I understand, it is not equivalent. I tried to read some articles about it, and I couldn't find a ...
Ron Cohen's user avatar
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