# Questions tagged [mathematics]

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### How to derive the CNOT matrix for a 3-qubit system where the control & target qubits are not adjacent?

In a three-qubit system, it's easy to derive the CNOT operator when the control & target qubits are adjacent in significance - you just tensor the 2-bit CNOT operator with the identity matrix in ...
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### How to understand the Haar measure from a quantum information perspective?

I found it a little difficult to understand it using Wikipedia and some mathematical documents. How to understand the Haar measure from a quantum information theory perspective? Are there any ...
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### Quantum states are unit vectors... with respect to which norm?

The most general definition of a quantum state I found is (rephrasing the definition from Wikipedia) Quantum states are represented by a ray in a finite- or infinite-dimensional Hilbert space over ...
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### Minimum number of 2 qubit gates to build any unitary

Any unitary $U$ acting on $N$ qubits can be decomposed in a finite product $U=U_1U_2...U_n$ where every $U_i$ acts on only 2 qubits, for example through decomposition in CNOT, phase shifts and 1 qubit ...
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### Is there an algorithm for determining if a given vector is separable or entangled?

I'm trying to understand if there is some sort of formula or procedural way to determine if a vector is separable or entangled – aka whether or not a vector of size $m$ could be represented by the ...
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### How do you represent the output of a quantum gate in terms of its basis vectors?

I'm stuck while trying to understand the Hadamard Gate in a more linear algebra understanding. (I understand the algebraic way). This is because I want to program a simulation of a quantum computer. ...
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### Correct Formulation of N&C Exercise 4.11 and other textbooks misquoting

Inspired by the comments in this question How to approximate $Rx$, $Ry$ and $Rz$ gates?, there is the errata for question 4.11 pg 176 in N&C. The original form states that for any non parallel $m$ ...
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### When would I consider using an outer product of quantum states, to describe aspects of a quantum algorithm?

I know the inner product has a relationship to the angle between two vectors and I know it can be used to quantify the distance between two vectors. Similarly, what's an use case for the outer ...
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### How universal is the Toffoli gate for classical reversible computing?

It is easy to see that no finite set of classical reversible gates can be strictly universal (without ancilla) for classical reversible computation: for any reversible gate on $n$ bits, in its action ...
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### Understanding a quantum algorithm to estimate inner products

While reading the paper "Compiling basic linear algebra subroutines for quantum computers", here, in the Appendix, the author/s have included a section on quantum inner product estimation. Consider ...
I see here in Olivia DeMatteo's notes, she states: When we consider the action of the entire Clifford group on a single non-identity Pauli, it maps that Pauli to each of the $d^2 − 1$ other possible ...