Questions tagged [machine-learning]

For questions about how quantum computing could improve or affect machine learning i.e. quantum machine learning. Questions about classical machine learning belong on another site, such as Stack Overflow, Cross Validated or Artificial Intelligence SE.

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What is the advantage of QSVM over the classical SVM?

I am mainly talking about QSVM from Qiskit (https://qiskit.org/documentation/stubs/qiskit.aqua.algorithms.QSVM.html#qiskit.aqua.algorithms.QSVM) versus a classical SVM. Is it just a time complexity ...
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116 views

How is back-propagation done in "Transfer learning in hybrid classical-quantum neural networks"

Just read this paper from Xanadu on Quantum Transfer Learning and a couple of things are unclear to me regarding the optimisation step. How is back-propagation done through the classical weights ...
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1answer
191 views

QML: "Quantum Data loader" instead of QRAM?

In last year‘s conference "Quantum For Business 2019" Iordanis Kerenidis gave a nice talk about quantum machine learning. At about time 27:10 he mentions a "Quantum Data loader" as an alternativ for ...
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91 views

When and how do we use basis embedding?

It is suggested in various sources that a possible approach to representing classical data as a quantum state is simply to take the binary sequence $x$ and turn it to $|x\rangle$ (i.e., "basis ...
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1answer
47 views

Quantum State Tomography from IQ plane data

Background: I am given to understand that the steps of Quantum State Tomography (QST) are as follows for a single qubit: The qubit is in the state $\psi=a_0|0\rangle+a_1|1\rangle$ with density matrix ...
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83 views

Calculating Dot Product of Two States

I've been reading Peter Wittek's Quantum Machine Learning. In chapter 10.2 of this book, the author explains how we can calculate the dot product of two states: To evaluate the dot product of two ...
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49 views

Quantum Boltzmann machine: How do you sample from the Boltzmann distribution on a quantum computer?

I am reading through the following article https://arxiv.org/abs/1601.02036. Eq. (22) describes one of the terms of the gradient of the log-likelihood cost function, which can be estimated using ...
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43 views

Variances of the principal components in Ewin Tang's PCA algorithm

In Quantum-inspired classical algorithms for principal component analysis and supervised clustering, the PCA algorithm requires that the variances of the principal vectors differ by at least a ...
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145 views

Quantum Optimization via Quantum Label Classification in Quantum Circuits

I have been reading Farhi and Neven's paper on quantum neural networks on quantum circuits. I also found an example - albeit not ideal as pointed out by a couple of users - thank you - in here. ...
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1answer
290 views

How Mature is the Tensorflow Quantum Library [closed]

Where does The Tensorflow Quantum ( TFQ ) library fall on it's maturity curve. In other words can we currently leverage the TFQ ...
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3answers
522 views

Swap Test for vector difference - how are different sized inputs combined?

I'm working on a similar problem of that raised by Aman in Inner product of quantum states Concerning the use of Swap Test for calculating the difference of two vectors. An example of the original ...
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2answers
107 views

Quantum Machine Learning in NISQ era

I know that quantum algorithms can be useful for machine learning ("ML") methods, and vice versa. For example if we use QAOA we can use for the optimization part different types of ML ...
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2answers
333 views

Q# Error: No namespace with the name "Microsoft.Quantum.MachineLearning" exists

I'm having trouble getting the namespace Microsoft.Quantum.MachineLearning. Here is an example Q# code: ...
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1answer
170 views

How to turn off multiprocessing in TensorFlow Quantum

Some background: I'm currently running the same training algorithm with a classical neural network and a quantum circuit, respectively. The NN is implemented in Keras with a TensorFlow backend, the ...
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1answer
79 views

What does the maximum of a Hamiltonian means (in a particular paper)?

In the paper Quantum Observables for continuous control of the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm via Reinforcement Learning, an Hamiltonian is defined in order to solve the MAXCUT problem : $...
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1answer
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Quantum Circuit Optimization with Machine Learning [closed]

I read some paper about Quantum Circuit Optimization but I am on a low level. And have some experience in ML. But what I don't understand is it possible that ML can help to optimize Quantum Circuits ...
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1answer
38 views

What's the relationship between output of qubit measurements and classification of data in Quantum Machine Learning?

I'm training a model in Q# which has more than 2 features. I have trouble understanding the following things: How is the data classified based on the qubit states? For example: If I have only 2 ...
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1answer
303 views

What are the mathematical prerequisites to study machine learning on quantum computers?

Besides machine learning, quantum info theory, optimization, and statistics knowledge, what are the prerequisites to implement existing ML techniques and create new ML techniques that would work on a ...
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50 views

How does the formula for the parameter shift rule change if we measure in the $X$ basis?

I'm studying the parameter shift rule and got stuck when improving an example with Pauli operators in https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.00745. This paper shows up $\partial_\mu f=\frac{1}{2}(f(\mu+\frac{\pi}{...
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1answer
117 views

Will NISQ based algorithms be useful in fault-tolerant Quantum computers?

As a data scientist, I want to use the cutting edge algorithms of machine learning to build my models, I am interested in quantum machine learning, the recent research in QML is about variational ...
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87 views

Is qiskit documentation about determining $|0\rangle$ and $|1\rangle$ incorrect?

I'm using pi-pulse pulses on qubit Armonk for determining 0 and 1 by Machine Learning. But when I run the code from https://qiskit.org/textbook/ch-quantum-hardware/calibrating-qubits-pulse.html. I get ...
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0answers
226 views

Calculating gradient of a gate using Parameter shift rule

I've been following this website to check out how parameter-shift works for calculation of gradients for backpropagation in Variational Quantum Machine Learning Circuits Most of it made makes sense ...
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76 views

What Are The Most Promising Real-World Applications For Quantum Machine Learning

I know this has been asked before in different ways, however, I am interested in something with a degree of clarity and focus not found in other questions. What I am looking to get is a list of the ...
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1answer
114 views

Is Industry or PhD programs best for someone wanting to go to quantum machine learning? [closed]

Is Industry and the companies including IBMa and D-wave etc or PhD research programs best for someone wanting to go to quantum statistical/mathematical machine learning in the United States? I mean ...
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59 views

Software for implementing Quantum Machine Learning

I want to have a software product specifically suited for Quantum Machine Learning. Please help me with a list of software product which has been designed specifically for implementing Quantum Machine ...
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979 views

How to run quantum SVM algorithm from Qiskit in real IBM Quantum Computer using IBMQ?

I'm trying to run QSVM algorithm in IBMQ experience, want to run in one of those real quantum computers. ...
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2answers
73 views

What are the libararies for Machine Learning on NISQ Chip? And What are the roadmaps?

Nowadays quantum learning is hiring. And we can see mainly two different area. One of them is variational algorithms part. And the other one is classical learning for quantum systems like NISQ. (Some ...
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1answer
60 views

Quantum SVM with large feature set

I am trying to practice QSVM from the following tutorial Introduction into Quantum Support Vector Machines The author has used 2 feature_dimension with 2 component PCA ...
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1answer
53 views

'Geometric difference' in Google's 'Power of data in quantum machine learning' paper

Has anyone ever tried to implement the geometric difference metric introduced in the Google's power of data paper? It is defined in Eq. 5. My implementation of the metric is as follows. ...
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1answer
612 views

Can quantum annealing be used for training convolutional neural networks?

Simulated annealing is applied for deep learning using convolutional neural networks. Likewise, can quantum annealing be used? These two papers: Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Deep Learning (...
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1answer
49 views

Is noise the only reason that makes the results of Quantum Support Vector Machine (QSVM) and Classical SVM differ, when we use a large dataset?

When I used and tested out the Quantum Support Vector Machine for just 120 samples of a large dataset (Training - 100 and Testing - 20). Its kernel classification results were quite close to the ...
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1answer
69 views

Prove the parameter shift rule in case of generator is Pauli matrix

I'm studying the parameter shift rule and got stuck when doing an example with Pauli operators in https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.00745. With $f=e^{-i\mu\frac{\sigma_i}{2}}$, $\partial_\mu f=\frac{(-i\...
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2answers
138 views

Quantum-Assisted Neural Network Training (Is my design reasonable?)

I'm a college student with a slight interest in quantum mechanics. I think I have a decent understanding of the Copenhagen and Many Worlds interpretations of quantum mechanics, and was considering how ...
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1answer
74 views

IBM Q Experience - Can it be used draw out ML inferences? [closed]

Are there Quantum-enhanced Machine Learning algorithms that can be implemented via Qiskit in IBM Q Experience and obtain valuable inferences faster than their classical counterparts from datasets of ...
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1answer
83 views

Initial assumption of the unitary that allows us to estimate the label function

You can find the paper here , in which they describe the architecture of a QNN that can be used to learn binary functions and correctly classify unseen data. They say that for each binary label ...
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0answers
47 views

Source code for Hybrid-HHL algorithm

How can I get a source code from this paper Hybrid quantum linear equation algorithm and its experimental test on IBM Quantum Experience? I want to implement this algorithm but I do not know how does ...
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1answer
57 views

how can we save a model using qiskit_machine_learning?

How can we save a trained model using Qiskit Machine Learning library? I've built a VQC classification model and once finished, I'd like to save the different models to be loaded later. There is a <...
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0answers
74 views

Circuit state preparation using amplitude encoding

I am following an example of preparing an input state using amplitude encoding from this book. How to calculate $\beta_1^1$ using given formula above? In my understanding, $\beta_1^1 = 2\arcsin(\frac{\...
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0answers
49 views

Reconstructing classical data from quantum feature maps

In the paper [Supervised learning with quantum enhanced feature spaces (Nature, arxiv) by Havlicek et al., a feature map is defined by $$| \Phi(\bar{x})\rangle=U_{\Phi(\bar x)}H^{\otimes n} U_{\Phi(\...
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19 views

How to get the solution and prediction of nuclear ridge regression? [closed]

\begin{equation} \label{eqs.1} \tilde{y}=\sum_{m=1}^{M}\alpha_{m}\kappa(x^{(m)},\tilde{x}) (1) \end{equation} where $\kappa(x^{(m)},\tilde{x})$defines the similarity between data and can be chosen ...
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49 views

How do you decide which rotations to use in a Quantum Machine Learning model?

I am trying to design a model using Q#'s machine learning library that takes in two features (real numbers from 0 to 1) and classifies as 0 or 1. So how do I decide which Rotations and what seeds to ...
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0answers
34 views

Can We Currently Import Quantum Datasets (Datasets Containing Quantum Data) Onto NISQ-era Quantum Computers?

I'm still investigating the TFQ whitepaper. In one section of the paper, the authors say this with respect to Quantum Datasets In general, [a quantum dataset] might come from a given black-box ...
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1answer
60 views

Quantum Noise Dataset

Does anyone in here know of an open source source for finding noisy data from quantum gates. I am interested in playing around with in the same way people play around with MNIST. I know it's a long ...
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51 views

Transfer trained machine learning model

I know just the basics of quantum computer i.e. superposition, entanglement, gates and few other kinds of stuff. Now the question is it possible to transfer a trained machine learning model from IBM ...
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0answers
54 views

Encoding Binary Data into Quantum Basis

I am working on implementing a paper on QNNs. I have successfully been able to resize a MNIST digit to be able to meet the size of quantum circuit. But I am not clear of how to convert the resized ...
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0answers
81 views

How to plot decision boundary with support vectors when running quantum SVM algorithm?

I'm working on QSVM to know the difference between SVM and QSVM. How much better quantum machine learning can do when compared to classical machine learning algorithms? Part of my code: ...
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0answers
145 views

Reinforcement learning with a quantum agent [closed]

Is it an open question whether we can do reinforcement learning where the quantum agent is not present in the environment, that is, doesn't contribute noise to the environment? In a classical ...
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1answer
190 views

Why is Farhi and Neven's architecture described in "Classification with Quantum Neural Network on near term processors" called a Neural Network?

In regards to "Classification with Quantum Neural Networks on near term processors" (which you can find here) , there are still a few things that do not make entirely sense to me. First of all, why ...
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1answer
53 views

Question About Measuring an Operator For Quantum Neural Network Paper

I'm currently reading the paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.06002.pdf I'm a little bit stuck on the step of how to determine the following quantity: Where U is a unitary operator acting on $|z,1\...
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2answers
162 views

Does anyone know how to get a list of all the Qiskit ML datasets, and if they can also be used for classical machine learning?

I am trying to create a Quantum Classifier and would like to try to test it out using a Qiskit ML dataset. However, I only know of the breast cancer dataset and I would like to try it on another ...