Questions tagged [hamiltonian-simulation]

Hamiltonian simulation is a class of algorithms that, given a Hermitian matrix A, output a quantum circuit implementing an approximation to the unitary exp[iAt].

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Can we use quantum phase estimation to learn anything about the dynamics of puzzles like the Rubik's cube?

Introduction Consider a state $\vert\psi\rangle$ as below, which is in a superposition of a difference between a Rubik's cube in a solved state and a Rubik's cube in the "superflip" state. ...
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VQE Cirq example

Is my understanding correct that in this example the Hamiltonian measurement is not performed through measuring individual Pauli operators because all its terms are mutually commuting? So, for each ...
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Paradox on the evolution direction in controlled Hamiltonian simulation for Quantum Phase Estimation

Suppose we want to perform Quantum Phase Estimation over a Linear Combination of Unitaries Hamiltonian. One of the most efficient ways to do so is to use qubitization: \begin{equation} Q=(2|0\rangle\...
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How can I decompose a matrix in terms of Pauli matrices?

I need to see an example of how Hamiltonian, i.e. any Hermitian matrix, can be decomposed into a linear combination of Pauli matrices. I would prefer an option to do this in larger than 2 dimensions, ...
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Simulating the Ising-like model as a quantum circuit

We are interested in simulating the 1d Ising model Hamiltonian using a Quantum Circuit (QC). A similar question was posted before with no answers. Here we will assume, for simplicity, 3 lattice sites ...
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Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem for Quantum Evolution

In classical digital signal processing one can try to identify the dynamics of a system by sampling its evolution from an initial time $t_0$ to a final time $t_1$. Sampling $N$ times results in a ...
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Applying QPE on a large matrix on amazon-braket

I'm running a QPE algorithm on the amazon-braket but it can only apply on a 22 or 44 matrix, when I want to expand it into a 5*5 or more, it will come an error. As I know, there is no theoretical ...
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Why does quantum phase estimation complexity scale with maximum representable energy?

In Quantum simulation of chemistry with sublinear scaling in basis size Ryan Babbush and other authors from Google Quantum team argue, when talking about performing Quantum Phase Estimation in 1st ...
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How can I convert exponentials of pauli matrices to circuits of this form in Qiskit?

For example the following circuit is for $e^{-i(Z\otimes Z\otimes Z)\Delta t} $ I know this can even be done without the ancilla qubit, having the CNOTs control the last qubit and applying an RZ on ...
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Why is HHL the popular choice to solve QLSP and not the Childs et al. (2017) algorithm?

The Childs, Kthari, and Rolando (2017) (CKS) algorithm can solve the quantum linear systems problem (QLSP) in $\operatorname{poly}(\log N, \log(1/\epsilon))$ time while the HHL algorithm solves it in $...
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Could the Hamiltonian of a Rubik's Cube be simulated with a NISQ device?

Consider the four cells on each of the six faces of the 2x2x2 Rubik's cube (the pocket cube), with front, up, and right twists being labelled as $\langle F,U,R\rangle$. Each move uses fifteen SWAP ...
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How is Quantum Phase Estimation useful for simulating dynamics of a many-body system?

I am quite aware of the Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) as well as the very closely related topic of Quantum Phase Estimation (QPE). The latter is usually motivated as follows: Given a unitary $U$ and ...
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In the HHL algorithm, does the controlled unitary depend on the Hermitian matrix coefficients?

In HHL algorithm, does the controlled unitary (Hamiltonian simulation part of Quantum phase estimation) depend on Hermitian matrix coefficients and how?
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Why does Hamiltonian simulation seek to find the energy minimum, if eigenvalues of unitaries are always unimodular?

I know I am wrong here and trying to find out where I am making a logical mistake. I'd appreciate it if you can help me untangle. A. We know that the eigenvalues of Unitaries are all unimodular (...
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Eigenvalues and energy levels of 1D Heisenberg model using real Quantum Computers?

The 1D Quantum Heisenberg model is $$H_\textrm{Heisenberg} = -~J \sum_{\langle i\ j\rangle} \hat{S}_{i} \cdot \hat{S}_{j}$$ where each spin is an operator. For simple cases, for example, a system with ...
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How to exactly implement Trotter-Suzuki formula on quantum computer

Recently, I am studying some topics related to product formula, and I am curious about how to implement such formula on real quantum devices. The $(2k)$-th order product formula can be witten as \...
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How to find minimum time needed for Hamiltonian evolution?

Database search can be looked upon as Hamiltonian evolution, with kinetic and potential energy operators. Let the evolution follow the Schrodinger equation: $$i\frac{d}{dt}|\psi⟩= H|ψ⟩$$ with $H = E|s⟩...
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Question on Aharanov and Ta-Shma (ATS)'s Sparse Hamiltonian Simulation notation

In the equations in section 3.4.2 of Aharonov and Ta-Shma's paper (pdf, arxiv abstract), they define the operator: $$T_1:|k,0\rangle\rightarrow|b_k,m_k,M_k,\tilde{A_k},\tilde{U_k},k\rangle,$$ where $...
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How can extract reduced dynamics of a bipartite system from unitary evolution in quite

Let us assume that I have a bipartite system $A\otimes B$ and an initial product state undergoing some evolution $H^{AB} = H^A+H^B+V^{AB}$, which is time independent. I want to simulate the reduced ...
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Can we simulate the Hamiltonian for the Rubik's Cube with "nth-root of SWAP" gates?

I'm interested in, but confused about, local Hamiltonian simulation. I don't yet have enough intuition regarding even the approach set forth by Lloyd in 1997. I think Lloyd's recipe is to repeatedly ...
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Can I use the Lie product formula to simulate the Hamiltonian of an adjacency matrix by using the QPE to take Nth roots of permutation matrices?

I have gotten some great help recently on Hamiltonian simulation, and am interested in using Hamiltonian simulation to explore (classical) random walks on large graphs, but I'm running up against ...
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Wick rotation of the Schrödinger equation

Studying the following paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41534-019-0187-2.pdf Trying to figure out how $ E_T$ shows up from (1) and (2). Any suggestion or guidance would be appreciated. We ...
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Is the square-root-of-SWAP for a pair of 4-dimensional qudits isomorphic to two square-root-of-SWAPS for two pairs of qubits?

This may be a very naïve question indicative of a lot of confusion, but I am trying to understand more about Hamiltonian simulation. I'm starting to intuit that the $n^{th}$-root-of-SWAP acting on a ...
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Do VQE and QAOA use the same Hamiltonian?

In this paper, it talks about the 2-local Hamiltonian in the form: $H = \sum_{(u,v)\in E} H_{uv} + \sum_{k \in v} H_k $ It also says the Ising model, Heisenberg model, XY model and QAOA are in the ...
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Simulating $e^{iX_1\otimes X_2t}$

I'm trying to figure out the quantum circuit to simulate the time-evolution of a 2-qubit Hamiltonian $e^{iX_1\otimes X_2t}$, where $X$ is a Pauli gate. From this answer, the quantum circuit performs $...
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Are these two circuits equivalent in performing controlled time-evolution?

I want to perform the controlled time-evolution of some 2 or 3-qubit Hamiltonian. Say we have this example: $$ H= Z_0\otimes Z_1 + Z_1\otimes Z_2 $$ The circuit performing the time-evolution ...
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QAOA for Binary Optimization

I have reduced an optimization problem to a Binary Integer Linear Programming model as follows: $$\sum_{j=1}^{2^n-1} f(C_j)x_j \rightarrow \max$$ $$\text{subject to} \sum_{j=1}^{2^n-1} S_{i,j}x_j=1\,\,...
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Relation between Jordan-Wigner transformation and Hilbert-Schmidt inner product

Given a fermionic Hamiltonian in a matrix form, we can write it as a sum over Kronecker products of Pauli matrices using the Hilbert-Schmidt inner product. However if the same Hamiltonian is given in ...
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What is "Lindblad Superoperator" in Stochastic Master Equation

I was reading a paper titled "Using a Recurrent Neural Network to Reconstruct Quantum Dynamics of a Superconducting Qubit from Physical Observations" and was confused about a stochastic master ...
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Standard to select base hamiltonaian for Adiabatic quantum computing

I'm learning about connection between QUBO and The Ising Model. It says Take the base Hamiltonian of an adiabatic process as $\sum_i \big(\frac{1-\sigma_i^x}{2}\big)$ to implement Hamiltonian for ...
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What type of tasks it is possible to solve on a quantum simulator?

In this article, the author claimed that researches from Harvard and MIT created 256 qubits quantum simulator. However, we are not talking about piece of software on a classical computer but actual ...
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How does Qiskit's VQE encode binary digits into a solution from a given Hamiltonian?

So far I have been working with the VQE on different Hamiltonians that happened to have degeneracies, that is there were always at least two different global minima, because the Hamiltonians I was ...
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Hamiltonian simulation for 2 qubit gates

I have been reading this paper, and at the end they have given exact decomposition of Hamiltonian simulation step, where they have decomposed a matrix $A$ into pauli matrices and done the operation $e^...
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Implementation of the Phase Estimation algorithm

I've been working on implementing quantum phase estimation in Qiskit for a $2^n \times 2^n$ Hamiltonian as part of my bachelor project, I'm using Trotterization as my Hamiltonian simulation of choice ...
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Are inconsistent results between different VQE runs justified?

I made this post a while ago, where I learned I could use qiskit's VQE to calculate (or approximate) the Transverse Field Ising Hamiltonian and other similar Hamiltonians. After working with my code ...
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Exponentiating Pauli matrices using trapped ion native gates (single-qubit rotations + XX, YY, ZZ)

I'm wondering what are the known/good/standard ways of exponentiating Pauli terms (i.e. constructing circuits, which implement $\exp(i\alpha XIIZYI...)$) using gates supported by trapped ion quantum ...
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What do the numbers in the Ising sampleset mean?

I am trying to create a portfolio optimization with the DWave Quantum Computer. I wrote some code trying to somehow reconstruct the following Ising model paper: Ai ...
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From QUBO problem to quantum circuit [duplicate]

Can you describe how to convert some QUBO problem $$f(x_1, ..., x_n) = \sum\limits_{1 \le i < j \le n} \alpha_{i,j} \, x_i \, x_j$$ into its equivalent quantum circuits? Is it preferrable to start ...
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Prove that any Hermitian Matrix is a real linear combination of Pauli operators [duplicate]

This is an important result in Quantum Computing because it means that the Hamiltonian of a Quantum System can be encoded as a sequence of real numbers and their corresponding Pauli Operator. How do ...
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How do we determine the direction of a time evolution $e^{-itH}$ on the Bloch sphere?

I have a question about the direction of time evolution on a Bloch sphere: suppose I'm performing a unitary time-evolution $\exp(-iHt/\hbar)$ for a single qubit, then on the Bloch sphere it ...
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Finding the norm of a Hamiltonian

I am experimenting with https://journals.aps.org/prx/pdf/10.1103/PhysRevX.8.041015 and in equation 36 I find that they use the norm of the Hamiltonian. Is there a clean way to compute it, or an upper ...
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Why is the time ordering omitted in the trotterised version of the time-dependent evolution operator?

The unitary evolution of a time-dependent hamiltonian is given by the time-ordered matrix exponential $$\begin{aligned} U(t)&=\mathcal T\exp\left[-i\int_0^tH(\tau)d\tau\right]\\ &=I-i\int_0^td\...
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How to implement NM Algorithm for Variational Quantum Eigensolver?

First of all: thanks for reading again. I appreciate the feedback I have gotten from this community the past weeks as I started to feel ready to ask questions about quantum computing topics. I am ...
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Calculating the ground states of an Ising Hamiltonian on a real quantum computer

I have followed this tutorial and based on it, I've written the following function in qiskit, which can explicitly calculate the ground states of a transverse-field Ising Hamiltonian. ...
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What is the usefulness of the Suzuki-Trotter formula?

I can't seem to wrap my head around the suzuki-trotter formula. I have seen This answer but I am still confused of the applicability of the formula. Let me explain: As I understand it Trotterization ...
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Intuition behind the construction of an ansatz circuit

I'm learning about the VQE algorithm. When I looked at the declaration in Qiskit I saw you need to pass an ansatz which prepares the state. I looked at some commonly used ansatz functions, e.g. ...
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What do coupling coefficients mean in terms of Pauli gates, and why are they time dependent?

I am reading this error mitigation paper by the IBM team and I am slightly confused about the meaning of "coupling coefficients" when describing multi-qubit Hamiltonian. I have only seen ...
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How to construct a Hamiltonian for an ensemble of atoms interacting with each other?

How to construct a Hamiltonian for an ensemble of atoms interacting with each other? For example if the one atom hamiltonian can be written as: $$\hat{H}=\left(\begin{matrix}0&\Omega_p(t)&0\\\...
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How to get eigenvectors of Hamiltonian in OpenFermion

In OpenFermion you can create a Hamiltonian in terms of creation and annihilation pretty easily: ...
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Has any analogue quantum simulator showed quantum advantage yet?

Quantum advantage/supremacy was achieved by Google using a quantum computer and more recently by Pan Jianwei's group using photons. So I was wondering, has any analog quantum simulator showed quantum ...