Questions tagged [gate-synthesis]

For questions about finding (short) gate sequences to implement a specific unitary operation, for example decomposing a complicated multi-qubit gate into a sequence of basic gates. It might apply to optimizing circuits with respect to length or depth or finding gate sequences to implement an algorithm.

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26
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5answers
4k views

How to derive the CNOT matrix for a 3-qubit system where the control & target qubits are not adjacent?

In a three-qubit system, it's easy to derive the CNOT operator when the control & target qubits are adjacent in significance - you just tensor the 2-bit CNOT operator with the identity matrix in ...
13
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2answers
2k views

Given a decomposition for a unitary $U$, how do you decompose the corresponding controlled unitary gate $C(U)$?

Suppose we have a circuit decomposition of a unitary $U$ using some universal gate set (for example CNOT-gates and single qubit unitaries). Is there a direct way to write down the circuit of the ...
4
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1answer
214 views

How can you decompose Grover's diffusion operator into gates?

I know how Grover's diffusion operator works ($U_s = 2|s\rangle\langle s|-I$) with the inversion around the mean. However, I want to implement it in simpler gates, to use the algorithm. How can I do ...
13
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2answers
526 views

Quantum XNOR Gate Construction

Tried asking here first, since a similar question had been asked on that site. Seems more relevant for this site however. It is my current understanding that a quantum XOR gate is the CNOT gate. Is ...
7
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1answer
412 views

Quantum XOR Linked List Construction

After getting help here with XNOR & RCA gates I decided to dive into XOR Swaps & XOR linked lists. I was able to find this explanation for quantum XOR Swapping which seems sufficient for the ...
6
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1answer
402 views

Quantum Ripple Carry Adder Construction

There is an excellent answer to How do I add 1+1 using a quantum computer? that shows constructions of the half and full adders. In the answer, there is a source for the QRCA. I have also looked at ...
20
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6answers
7k views

How do I build a gate from a matrix on Qiskit?

I'm creating a gate for a project and need to test if it has the same results as the original circuit in a simulator, how do I build this gate on Qiskit? It's a 3 qubit gate, 8x8 matrix: $$ \frac{1}{...
8
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2answers
3k views

Expressing "Square root of Swap" gate in terms of CNOT

How could a $\sqrt{SWAP}$ circuit be expressed in terms of CNOT gates & single qubit rotations? CNOT & $\sqrt{SWAP}$ Gates Any quantum circuit can be simulated to an arbitrary degree of ...
11
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1answer
1k views

How to implement a matrix exponential in a quantum circuit?

Maybe it is a naive question, but I cannot figure out how to actually exponentiate a matrix in a quantum circuit. Assuming to have a generic square matrix A, if I want to obtain its exponential, $e^{A}...
11
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2answers
7k views

How do you implement the Toffoli gate using only single-qubit and CNOT gates?

I've been reading through "Quantum Computing: A Gentle Introduction", and I've been struggling with this particular problem. How would you create the circuit diagram, and what kind of reasoning would ...
9
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3answers
3k views

How to implement the "Square root of Swap gate" on the IBM Q (composer)?

I would like to simulate a quantum algorithm where one of the steps is "Square root of Swap gate" between 2 qubits. How can I implement this step using the IBM composer?
13
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6answers
7k views

How to construct a multi-qubit controlled-Z from elementary gates?

For the implementation of a certain quantum algorithm, I need to construct a multi-qubit (in this case, a three-qubit) controlled-Z gate from a set of elementary gates, as shown in the figure below. ....
12
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3answers
1k views

Approximating unitary matrices

I currently have 2 unitary matrices that I want to approximate to a good precision with the fewer quantum gates possible. In my case the two matrices are: The square root of NOT gate (up to a global ...
15
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1answer
808 views

Obtaining gate $e^{-i\Delta t Z}$ from elementary gates

I am currently reading "Quantum Computation and Quantum Information" by Nielsen and Chuang. In the section about Quantum Simulation, they give an illustrative example (section 4.7.3), which I don't ...
11
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3answers
2k views

Implementation of the oracle of Grover's algorithm on IBM Q using three qubits

I am trying to get used to IBM Q by implementing three qubits Grover's algorithm but having difficulty to implement the oracle. Could you show how to do that or suggest some good resources to get ...
13
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2answers
1k views

Automatic compilation of quantum circuits

A recent question here asked how to compile the 4-qubit gate CCCZ (controlled-controlled-controlled-Z) into simple 1-qubit and 2-qubit gates, and the only answer given so far requires 63 gates! The ...
4
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1answer
88 views

Adding a phase to qubit: why is it necessary for arbitrary single qubit gate

An arbitrary single qubit gate can be decomposed as: $$U=e^{i \alpha} R_z(\beta) R_y(\gamma) R_z(\delta)$$ We notice that in addition to the three rotations, there is a coefficient $e^{i \alpha}$. ...
3
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1answer
90 views

Implementing a controlled-controlled-U using controlled-U

Suppose I know how to implement a 2 qubit gate $C-U$ (i.e controlled U), and I want to implement $CC-U$ using $C-U$ and other 1 or 2 qubit gates, is that possible?
7
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1answer
920 views

Decomposition of an arbitrary 1-qubit gate into a specific gateset

Any 1-qubit special gate can be decomposed into a sequence of rotation gates ($R_z$, $R_y$ and $R_z$). This allows us to have the general 1-qubit special gate in matrix form: $$ U\left(\theta,\phi,\...
6
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2answers
381 views

How can I fill a unitary knowing only its first column?

I have a unitary matrix that I want to construct. I only care what happens to the first computational state, so the first column is specified. So far, I've been assigning each question mark to a ...
6
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2answers
214 views

How to visualize Hadamard gate as $X$-$Z$-$X$ decomposition?

In the book Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by Nielsen and Chuang, chapter 4, exercise 4.4 (pg. 175), the author has asked to express Hadamard gate as product of $R_x$, $R_z$ rotations and ...
6
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2answers
1k views

What components are needed to realize a photonic CNOT gate?

In Realization of a photonic CNOT gate sufficient for quantum computation FIG. 1 there is a "scheme to obtain a photonic realization of a CNOT gate with two independent qubits." What ...
3
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1answer
156 views

How to construct a controlled-Hadamard gate using single qubit gates and controlled phase-shift?

How can I construct a controlled-Hadamard gate using single qubit gates and controlled phase-shift? I am stuck in this and any help would be appreciated.
21
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1answer
671 views

Explicit Conversion Between Universal Gate Sets

I'm interested in the conversion between different sets of universal gates. For example, it is known that each of the following sets is universal for quantum computation: $\{T,H,\textrm{cNOT}\}$ $\{H,...
10
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1answer
2k views

Implementing a CCCNOT gate using only Toffoli gates

A CCCNOT gate is a four-bit reversible gate that flips its fourth bit if and only if the first three bits are all in the state $1$. How would I implement a CCCNOT gate using Toffoli gates? Assume ...
7
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2answers
2k views

Composing the CNOT gate as a tensor product of two level matrices

I don't understand, why is the control not gate used so often. As far as I understand it, if you apply two 2 level operations on two qubits then you get a 4 x 4 matrix by the tensor product. So how ...
7
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2answers
281 views

Arbitrary powers of NOT and SWAP

The square-root of not and square-root of swap gates are often singled out for discussion of gates displaying important properties relating to quantum computers. How do I define arbitrary (non-...
5
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1answer
226 views

Decomposition of any 2-level matrix into single qubit and CNOT gates

I saw an example which takes a 2 level matrix. Which is a $8\times8$ matrix that acts non trivially only on 2 levels of only states $|000\rangle$ and $|111\rangle$. The way they do it is by using a ...
14
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2answers
761 views

What is the mathematical justification for the "universality" of the universal set of quantum gates (CNOT, H, Z, X and π/8)?

In this answer I mentioned that the CNOT, H, X, Z and $\pi/8$ gates form a universal set of gates, which given in sufficient number of gates can get arbitrarily close to replicating any unitary ...
11
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1answer
2k views

How can a controlled-Ry be made from CNOTs and rotations?

I want to be able to applied controlled versions of the $R_y$ gate (rotation around the Y axis) for real devices on the IBM Q Experience. Can this be done? If so, how?
8
votes
2answers
280 views

Construct Controlled-$G^{\dagger}$ from known Controlled-$G$

Let there be a known a scheme (quantum circuit) of Controlled-G, where unitary gate G has G$^†$ such that G≠G$^†$ and GG$^†$=I (for example S and S$^†$, T and T$^†$, V and V$^†$, but not Pauli and H ...
7
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3answers
1k views

Hadamard gate as a product of $R_x$, $R_z$ and a phase

I am having problems with this task. Since the Hadamard gate rotates a state $180°$ about the $\hat{n} = \frac{\hat{x} + \hat{z}}{\sqrt{2}}$ axis, I imagine the solution can be found the following ...
4
votes
1answer
322 views

Square root of NOT as a time-dependent unitary matrix

I want to express the square root of NOT as a time-dependent unitary matrix such that each $n$ units of time, the square root of NOT is produced. More precisely, I want to find a $U(t_0,t_1)$ such ...
3
votes
2answers
152 views

Minimal quantum OR circuit

The quantum OR circuit between $|a\rangle$ and $|b\rangle$ can be made out of 1 Toffoli and 2 CNOT gates, 1 ancillary qubit. Is there any other implementation? Or is this the minimal in the sense of ...
3
votes
1answer
96 views

Optimise implementation of a quantum algorithm when an input is fixed

I need to implement a quantum comparator that, given a quantum register $a$ and a real number $b$ known at generation time (i.e. when the quantum circuit is generated), set a qubit $r$ to the boolean ...
8
votes
2answers
376 views

Number of gates required to approximate arbitrary unitaries

If I understand correctly, there must exist unitary operations that can be approximated to a distance $\epsilon$ only by an exponential number of quantum gates and no less. However, by the Solovay-...
6
votes
2answers
479 views

How do we code the matrix for a controlled operation knowing the control qubit, the target qubit and the $2\times 2$ unitary?

Having n qubits, I want to have the unitary described a controlled operation. Say for example you get as input a unitary, an index for a controlled qubit and another for a target. How would you code ...
4
votes
1answer
167 views

How to create an $n$-qubit normally controlled gate?

Suppose I have a quantum gate $U$ and it's a controlled gate. In particular, I have a $2\times 2$ matrix formulation of the gate's action on 2 adjacent qubits. How can I make this work on an $n$-bit ...
3
votes
1answer
254 views

Is it possible to express $U_1(\lambda)$ through the gates $R_x, R_y, R_z$ while maintaining the phase? In Qiskit for example

Is it possible to express gate $U_1(\lambda)$ through the gates $R_x, R_y, R_z$ while maintaining the phase? Both in principle and in practice (in Qiskit for example)? The single gate $R_z(\lambda)$ ...
3
votes
1answer
202 views

Transpilation into custom gate set in qiskit

In qiskit, I can transpile a given circuit into a some predefined gate set as follows (just an example) ...
2
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1answer
217 views

If CNOTs and single qubit gates are universal then why do we need to prove that controlled U operations can be composed by them as well?

In the book by Chuang and Nielsen they prove that controlled U operations can be made out of CNOTs and single qubit gates. But then they go on to prove that they are universal by showing that every n ...
2
votes
2answers
151 views

How to construct a CU3 gate using only CX and U3 gates?

Knowing that CX and U3 (taking 3 parameters $\theta, \phi$ and $\lambda$) form a set of universal gates how can I construct an arbitrary CU3 gate using a decomposition of only CX and arbitrary U3 ...
1
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2answers
271 views

How does the stated Pauli decomposition for $\operatorname{CP\cdot A\cdot CP}$ arise?

I'm having a bit of trouble understand @DaftWullie's answer here. I understood that the $4\times 4$ matrix $A$ $$ \frac{1}{4} \left[\begin{matrix} 15 & 9 & 5 & -3 \\ 9 & 15 & 3 &...
0
votes
1answer
410 views

How to code a projector operator in qiskit?

I'm new to qiskit and I want to know how do I define a projector operator in qiskit? Specifically, I have prepared a 3 qubit system, and after applying a whole lot of gates and measuring it in a state ...