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Questions tagged [experimental-realization]

For questions about physical implementations of a quantum algorithm or other quantum information protocol. DO NOT use for questions about simulation or emulation of quantum computers, or cloud-based quantum computing services like the IBM Q Experience.

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Config (setting) file choices for Python

Before raising my questions, I am aware there are similar questions on other websites that have been answered pretty much in very good detail, but I am interested in asking my questions from a quantum ...
3 votes
1 answer
43 views

In what limit does the estimator sample variance converge to the Cramer-Rao bound?

In the context of a single phase estimation problem of a quantum photonics experiment (related post). For example consider a 3-photon quantum circuit (such as the Mach-Zehnder which depends on some ...
7 votes
2 answers
85 views

What is the definition of physical gate error rate?

The fidelity of two quantum states $\rho$ and $\sigma$ is a well-defined (up to discussions about a square): $$ F(\rho, \sigma) = \text{Tr}\left( \sqrt{ \sqrt{\rho} \sigma \sqrt{\rho}}\right)^2. $$ ...
4 votes
3 answers
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Why do we have to measure the circuit before sending it to the real quantum computer?

If I want to run a circuit on a real quantum computer, I have to measure it before running it. For example: ...
2 votes
1 answer
399 views

How do I stepwise rotate a qubit on a Bloch sphere using $SO(3)$ and $SU(2)$ group?

Let us first introduce two fundamental functions for coordinate transformations: ...
3 votes
2 answers
792 views

Question about DIY Quantum Computer Prototype

I recently came across these 2 videos on Coursera which show how to build a simple quantum computer that can implement the simplest case of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm (which uses only 2 qubits). ...
43 votes
7 answers
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Why is it harder to build quantum computers than classical computers?

Is it because we don't know exactly how to create quantum computers (and how they must work), or do we know how to create it in theory, but don't have the tools to execute it in practice? Is it a mix ...
3 votes
1 answer
58 views

Fisher information from likelihood function for discrete quantum case

In the context of a single phase estimation problem of a quantum photonics experiment. For example consider a 3-photon quantum circuit (such as the Mach-Zehnder which depends on some phase shift ...
1 vote
0 answers
37 views

Can a single qubit gate fidelity be benchmarked through XEB (Cross-Entropy Benchmarking)?

I'm currently investigating two qubit Cross-Entropy benchmarking and was able to simulate the decay curve that one would get in experiment when doing cycles for the case of two qubits (random single ...
8 votes
2 answers
587 views

What design considerations set the frequency bounds for superconducting qubits?

Superconducting qubits generally have frequencies within the range of 4 - 8 GHz. What design considerations give the upper and lower bounds for what is a feasible design. I.e, why can't they be higher ...
1 vote
1 answer
199 views

Why in quantum coin toss, when starting from state $|1\rangle$, we get $|-\rangle$?

I was reading qiskit's text book, there I found that for a Double quantum coin toss, we have negative probability amplitude for $|1\rangle$ state when we starts from $|1\rangle$ state. Link : https://...
0 votes
1 answer
157 views

How do qubits interact to form logic gates?

How do qubits interact to form, say, CNOT gates? There are very few comprehensive explanations of how quantum computing works. They all use obscure metaphors that don’t make sense (like Schrödinger’s ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Qiskit result per shot

I want to run a simple circuit with one qubit and a hadamard gate on a Quantum Machine. I want the result of every shot in a list. It works with a simulator and the get_memory function but this ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Example of two-level systems which has very long lifetime "in nature" but as soon as we manipulate them their lifetime is very small

I am looking for examples of quantum systems which could serve as qubits (electron spin, electrical levels of ions, whatever) that verify the following properties: In nature they can have very long ...
2 votes
1 answer
297 views

How many physical qubits are needed to encode a logical qubit on ion trap, superconducting, neutral atom, photonic QC?

How many physical qubits are needed to encode a logical qubit on an -- ion trap, -- superconducting, -- neutral atom, -- photonic, -- spin quantum computer based on today's technologies?
1 vote
1 answer
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What do the numbers mean in the elements used in ion traps?

Sorry for the dumb question. Some ions used in quantum computing are Yb171+, Be9+, Ca43+. According to this ionic numenclature, "We have seen that some elements lose different numbers of ...
5 votes
1 answer
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What are the limitations of Harvard's and Google experiment on quantum error-correction

I am currently reading the papers about the QEC (quantum error-correction) experiments of 2023 and while they are impressive (!), I would like to better understand what are their limitations. My goal ...
1 vote
1 answer
62 views

Phase accumulation for multiple Rabi driving pulses

When a single-qubit gate is operated by Rabi driving, the resulting operator is equivalent to $$ \hat{O} = R_z(\omega t) R_x(\Omega t)\tag{1}$$ where $\omega$ is the frequency of the driving field, $\...
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When did Rigetti release their 128-qubit chip?

On Aug 6 2018, Rigetti announced that they would release a 128-qubit chip within a year. They provided an update on Jan 24 2019, but there is no mention of further progress. Other sources all mention ...
5 votes
2 answers
480 views

What is the clear definition of coherent versus incoherent errors?

The noise types in quantum computing are pivotal topics frequently discussed in academic papers. Could you provide a clear definition of coherent versus incoherent errors? Additionally, I'm keen to ...
2 votes
0 answers
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Superconducting charge qubit and Cooper pairs

In the superconducting charge qubit implementation of the qubit what I've understood is that we read a 1 if a Cooper pair has gone through the Josephson Junction into the "island" and we ...
7 votes
3 answers
3k views

How are IBM's 127 qubits more potent than the 5760 qubits D-Wave - Advantage_system6.1?

Hi I'm a newbie in quantum computing recently I had a look at the AWS braket and I've seen they had a machine called D-Wave - Advantage_system6.1 that has 5760 qubits but when I googled the highest ...
0 votes
1 answer
277 views

Hamiltonian in CNOT gate implementation

I am studying the physical implementation of the CNOT gate from "Introduction to Quantum Computing" (Ray LaPierre) and I am confused about the order of operators in the tensor product of the ...
1 vote
0 answers
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non-variational formulation of imaginary time evolution

I was wondering if there is a codebase online or if somebody here has implemented successfully the non-variational formulation of the imaginary-time evolution algorithm in qiskit. I know ...
1 vote
1 answer
69 views

How to create a electron in a superpositon?

I am trying to understand how are qubits created and implemented in real life. I was unable to find much information about how electrons are kept or sent into a superposition of our wish which is of ...
1 vote
0 answers
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In qubit phase tracking, does the phase $\delta$ have to be synchronized to the Larmor precession?

In many textbooks (e.g. LaPierre 2021 or Byrd 2022), when dealing with the physical implementation of quantum gates in spin qubits, Larmor precession is usually introduced first as a way to rotate the ...
5 votes
1 answer
267 views

Qudits in NISQ Devices: Benefits Beyond Dimensional Advantages?

It's clear from foundational research that qudits can provide an enhanced control of the Hilbert space over qubits, and I've encountered references that highlight improved robustness and noise ...
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Physical interpretation of superposition state

I was confused with interpreting superposition state in the anharmonic energy diagram. In the anharmonic energy diagram, an energy pulse can shift the state of the qubit from $|0\rangle$ to $|1\rangle$...
0 votes
1 answer
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Rabi amplitude in theory vs practice

I am a bit confused with the definition of Rabi amplitude and how it relates to experimental values. If I understand correctly, we can show a rabi driving (waveform) with the following formula: $\...
1 vote
1 answer
90 views

What is complete structures of the photonic quantum computers?

I am interested in studying quantum computers based on photonic integrated circuits. I am looking for a site, article, book, or material that will introduce the process of its implementation step by ...
12 votes
2 answers
689 views

How are elementary quantum gates realised?

When expressing computations in terms of a quantum circuit, one makes use of gates, that is, (typically) unitary evolutions. In some sense, these are rather mysterious objects, in that they perform "...
5 votes
1 answer
988 views

What is entropy quantum computing?

Recently there is news concerning some computational breakthroughs by using so-called "entropy quantum computing": https://thequantuminsider.com/2022/07/20/qci-solves-3854-variable-problem-...
4 votes
0 answers
210 views

How to design a RF-SQUID qubit by Qiskit Metal?

I am now learning how to use Qiskit Metal to design superconducting circuits. I found that there are only several transmon qubits in the library. Can I design an RF-SQUID qubit by using Qiskit metal? ...
0 votes
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What is the closest experimental platform to $H=\sum_{ij} J^X_{ij}X_iX_j+J^Y_{ij}Y_iY_j+J^Z_{ij}Z_iZ_j$?

Consider the Hamiltonian $$H=\sum_{ij} J^X_{ij}X_iX_j+J^Y_{ij}Y_iY_j+J^Z_{ij}Z_iZ_j$$ where $X,Y,Z$ are Pauli spin operators and $J_{ij}^\alpha$ are arbitrary couplings that can be positive and ...
1 vote
1 answer
408 views

Number of qubits in quantum circuits in ibm qiskit

How to find number of Qubits ? ...
1 vote
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What's the difference between Superconductor, Photonics, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance implementation of the physical QC?

I'm a bit new to Quantum Computing and I wonder why organisations are using different physical architecture. I realise that any physical implementation can be valid as long as it uses the fundamentals ...
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33 views

What level of physics and math do I need to get into Quantum Computing (hardware)?

I already understand the abstractions of Quantum Computing (software), which includes qubits, interference, qubit entanglement, and circuits. However, despite being able to write Q# code that makes up ...
4 votes
1 answer
194 views

Measuring Ising anyons: What is a fusion measurement?

I have several doubts about measuring Ising anyons. Measurement is crucial for quantum computation and even more so for magic state distillation which is necessary to make Ising anyons universal. ...
44 votes
3 answers
10k views

How does a quantum computer do basic math at the hardware level?

On reading this Reddit thread I realized that even after a couple months of learning about quantum computing I've absolutely no clue about how a quantum computer actually works. To make the question ...
0 votes
1 answer
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Is there any recent review on the state of the art of NMR quantum computing?

Is there any recent review on the state of the art NMR quantum computing? there are some reviews but they are not complete. for example does not give the data for the gate times and so on.
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quantum mechanical outcome of heating an ensemble of particles

Following the post in our neighboring chemistry community, I would like to understand the expected outcome when an ensemble of particles at their ground state is heated to gain additional energy ...
0 votes
1 answer
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Why are we only interested in the linear combination $|\phi\rangle = a |0\rangle + b |1\rangle$?

They say superposition enables qubit to live in linear superposition of two states. I.e. \begin{equation} |\phi\rangle = a|0\rangle + b |1\rangle \end{equation} Why are we interested only in linear ...
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What would be the simplest physical implementation of a CNOT operation between spin and energy DoF's?

I'm working on a project where I'm considering a two-level system ("atom" for convenience) which possesses two linearly independent degrees of freedom, one of them a spin degree of freedom ...
0 votes
1 answer
58 views

Quantum algorithms and binomial distributions and probabilities

Qubits in a quantum computer are mostly spins of quantum particles.But since spin can take up to 2 values does this mean quantum algorithms are applied mathematics which make use of binomial ...
4 votes
0 answers
62 views

When is a quantum algorithm considered to have a significantly superior performance over another quantum algorithm?

Suppose we have two heuristic quantum algorithms $A$ and $B$ that attempt to solve a certain class of optimization problems. Let's suppose that the benchmarking metric is Time To Solution (TTS), which ...
1 vote
1 answer
63 views

What is the purpose of Doppler cooling in neutral atom devices?

As a theorist without much experimental physics background, I am reading some reviews to understand how these systems work. I've learned that one needs to use Doppler cooling before trapping the atoms ...
9 votes
2 answers
381 views

Does post selection of a qubit introduce non-linearity?

Problem I have a multi-qubit state $\lvert \psi \rangle$ and an ancilla qubit $\lvert 0 \rangle$ that I use to extend my state, getting the new state $\lvert 0\rangle \otimes \lvert \psi \rangle$. ...
7 votes
3 answers
666 views

Does Google's error correction paper invalidate Gil Kalai's arguments?

In his paper "The Argument against Quantum Computers, the Quantum Laws of Nature, and Google’s Supremacy Claims", Gil Kalai argues that quantum advantage will never be reached. For NISQ ...
3 votes
1 answer
200 views

Quantum and DNA computing

Recently I came across the article Associative Quantum Memory. In the article, the authors discussed early physical implementation of quantum computers with NMR. In particular, NMR implementation used ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Can the paper by Monz et al. (2015) be regarded as a real implementation of Shor's algorithm?

I'm studying about the Shor algorithm and I wonder whether the paper below can be regarded as a real implementation of the Shor algorithm: https://arxiv.org/abs/1507.08852 In this paper, they tried to ...

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