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Questions tagged [error-mitigation]

For questions about QEM (Quantum Error Mitigation) which is different from Quantum Error Correction in that no extra qubits are used.

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are there other error mitigation methods in qiskit?

recently I've tried solving this 3-SAT problem: (𝐴∨𝐵∨𝐶)∧(𝐴∨𝐵∨¬𝐶)∧(𝐴∨¬𝐵∨𝐶)∧(𝐴∨¬𝐵∨¬𝐶)∧(¬𝐴∨𝐵∨𝐶)∧(¬𝐴∨𝐵∨¬𝐶)∧(¬𝐴∨¬𝐵∨𝐶) by grover's algorithm. The result looks good with AerSimulator in ...
taketoshi kinoshita's user avatar
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What is the relation between Shor's code and the GHZ states?

The logical states for Shor's code $|0_L\rangle$ and $|1_L\rangle$ are $$ \begin{equation} \begin{aligned} |0_L\rangle = \left(\frac{|000\rangle+|111\rangle}{\sqrt{2}}\right)^{\otimes{}3}\...
vollautomatthi's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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Quantum Error Correction Difficulties: "Measurements destroy quantum information" Intuition

Context: In section 10.1.1, Nielsen and Chuang describe the difficulties QEC faces compared to classical error correction. Particularly that Measurements destroy quantum information. Shor states in ...
vollautomatthi's user avatar
1 vote
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How to model the IBM quantum errors?

I'm conducting a study of the quantum channel errors, and a question has arisen: Is it possible to model the errors of an IBM quantum computer with Kraus operators?
Leandro Matheus Morais da Silv's user avatar
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What kind of quantum error is most likely to happen and are considered most in quantum error correction codes?

In quantum error correction literature, it is assumed that the possibility of happening a few-qubit error is bigger than a many-qubit error. Does this assumption have any physical evidence? I am ...
qdmj's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
314 views

Erasure errors in quantum error correction

Consider an $[n, k, d]$ classical code. This code can correct up to $d-1$ erasures. For example, if we have the code that maps $0\rightarrow 00$ and $1\rightarrow 11$, this code has distance $2$. ...
user1936752's user avatar
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2 votes
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Does qiskit make any rounding errors or anything similar, or is it a perfect (but slow) simulation of a quantum computer?

I ran the following circuit to calculate the real part of the Bargmann Invariant of a system of quantum states. The invariant is defined as ...
Srini Thirumalai's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
28 views

ZNE for mitigating errors in probability distribution results

Can ZNE be applied to mitigate errors for getting the probability distribution in the computational basis rather than mitigating errors for calculation of expectation values?
Amey Meher's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
581 views

What is the clear definition of coherent versus incoherent errors?

The noise types in quantum computing are pivotal topics frequently discussed in academic papers. Could you provide a clear definition of coherent versus incoherent errors? Additionally, I'm keen to ...
Yunjie Wang's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
55 views

How does error accumulate when entangling two distant qubits with limited connectivity?

My goal is to minimize accumulated error when entangling two qubits that cannot be entangled via a single native two qubit gate operation. I have a coupling map/graph for the qubits of an IBM quantum ...
ty.'s user avatar
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1 answer
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Qiskit's measurement error mitigation from counts data only, in 2023

Months or years ago, in a remote part of the globe, someone accessed an IBM Quantum computer online to perform a real experiment. She saved the resulting measurement outcomes of the algorithm in csv ...
PDRX's user avatar
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Which algorithms use amplitude of the measurement of a cricuit?

So my question is motivated by noise. If we have a circuit and we get multiple results. In which algorithms does it matter to use which amplitude the results have? For example, when we measure our ...
Qubii's user avatar
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1 answer
73 views

How to perform below operation in Qiskit?

I want to implement the below equation in Qiskit. $(A \otimes B).\rho.(B^\dagger \otimes A^\dagger)$ where $\rho$ is a density matrix and $A$ and $B$ are CNOT gates. $$ A=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 &...
joy Jaganath's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
74 views

Is there something like error-suppression codes?

My question is a bit on the soft side, and basically asks if there is something between error mitigation and full error correction? On the one hand, as far as I understand, trying to increase the ...
Nikita Nemkov's user avatar
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1 answer
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Where have the error mitigation utilities moved to in Qiskit?

Now that Qiskit Ignis has been deprecated where have the error mitigation utilities been moved to? I am unable to find that by doing a quick google search.
bisarch's user avatar
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Probabilistic error cancellation: how are we sure (i) the inverse noise *mathematically* exists, (ii) its expansion contains implementable operations

I am currently learning the basics of probabilistic error cancellation. The idea, in summary, is the following: We want to implement a quantum circuit having a noiseless (unitary) implementation $\...
Marco Fellous-Asiani's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
79 views

Zero noise extrapolation for error mitigation: Meaning of rescaled density matrix, specifically when there is no local hamiltonian evolution

I have a few questions regarding dynamics rescaling for zero noise extrapolation. In the paper Error mitigation for short-depth quantum circuits, in equation (30), they write We redefine $T \...
lost forgotten pearl's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
78 views

Bounds on success probability of an algorithm under depolarizing noise

The problem I have is that, I have a quantum circuit performing a certain task (e.g. Shor's algorithm) and the circuit is subject to depolarizing noise, Pauli errors, after each gate. And I want to ...
AndyLiuin's user avatar
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how does one get native 2-body measurements?

How are Majorana-based architectures able to possess native 2-body measurement operations? Could anyone provide an appropriate reference explaining that? Are those native measurement operations ...
user111's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
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How to transform a qiskit quantum circuit to a braket circuit?

I have a quantum circuit in qiskit. Now I want to know is there any way that I can transform it to a braket circuit in AWS? I want to use error mitigation in AWS. I have the circuit in qiskit. But as ...
INDRANIL MAITI's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
176 views

Measurement of readout errors for error mitigation algorithms

I am using an error mitigation algorithm that uses the readout errors p(0|1) and p(1|0) to correct the errors due to noise in my original circuit. I am trying to measure the readout errors in the same ...
bisarch's user avatar
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165 views

Qiskit, possible to manipulate mid-circuit measurement outcomes?

I'm currently coding up an error correction gadget using qiskit. The one I'm doing now is 7-qubit Steane code with Steane's error correction gadget, in which the ancilla qubits are measured and then ...
AndyLiuin's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
233 views

How is randomized compiling actually helpful: experimentally, a gate is not "perfect" followed by some noise acting "after"

I am currently learning randomized compiling with this paper which seems to be the "main" reference on this topic (at least many papers refer to this one). However, I do not understand how ...
Marco Fellous-Asiani's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
607 views

What do the 'resilience_level's in qiskit-runtime's primitives mean?

The qiskit-runtime primitives programs 'estimator' and 'sampler' for accessing the IBM Q hardware have the option of error mitigation by setting the 'resilience_level'. Here an overview of the meaning ...
qcabepsilon's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
424 views

How is Pauli twirling applied to a noisy gate in practice?

My understanding of Pauli Twirling mainly comes from this paper. Please, correct me if I am wrong in any part of my explanation. General idea of Pauli twirling The idea of Pauli Twirling is the ...
Marco Fellous-Asiani's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
61 views

Time Complexity (Big O Notation)

What is the time complexity of the two error-mitigation methods that are implemented in qiskit.ignis. 1- pseudo inverse. 2- least squares.
rabah hacene benaissa's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
65 views

Which error channel definitions should I use if I want to compare the performance of a QEC protocol for depolarizing errors vs dephasing errors?

Let's say you want to investigate if a quantum error correction or error mitigation protocol performs better under dephasing errors compared to depolarizing errors, or if a quantum algorithm is more ...
Turbotanten's user avatar
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37 views

Does anybody know what a low-degree Markov field is?

In the paper Fast Estimation of Sparse Quantum Noise I saw the following description: quantum devices approaching the fault-tolerant regime will have very few significant errors (and therefore are ...
karry's user avatar
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Are there any systematic tools for estimating expected error rate?

Like we all probably know, today’s NISQ computers are, as their name implies - very noisy. Hence, if we desire to obtain valuable results then we should come up with circuit designs that minimizes the ...
Ohad's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
641 views

Best tutorial about the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE)

I want to find a tutorial on VQE with a good valance between the theoretical background of the method, and it's working implementation on QPU. Covering advanced topics such as quantum error ...
user3116936's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
346 views

Is there a tutorial for error mitigation in qiskit that does not use the deprecated ignis?

Working through the qiskit text I have come accross measurement error mitigation a few times (Measurement Error Mitigation, Lab 3: Quantum Measurment,...]. In the online textbook the coding indicates ...
PGibbon's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
272 views

What is more important, minimizing the number of gates, or the number of qubits?

I am new to the quantum world, and I have 2 circuits that measure cosine similarity between 2 binary vectors. One uses a swap test, the other uses something called a hyper-state generation procedure. ...
Yousef Zook's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
1k views

What is the difference between Error Mitigation (EM) and Quantum Error Correction (QEC)?

From what I understood, EM is mostly post-processing and does not affect quantum circuit complexity whereas QEC has overheads and integrates as part of a quantum circuit. Is this correct? Also, which ...
MonteNero's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
120 views

Options for more complex error models on stim?

We're trying to simulate whether some initialization strings are preferable to others. For example, would initializing all qubits to $|0\rangle$ lead to a lower error rate? Is it possible to further ...
xilinzhou's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
589 views

What is the concrete difference between qiskit thermal_relaxation_error and phase_amplitude_damping_error?

What is the concrete difference between those two error models in qiskit.providers.aer.noise? For phase_amplitude_damping_error ...
qcabepsilon's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
410 views

Readout Error in Qiskit: What is a reasonable model?

The Readout Error in Qiskit is described here: https://qiskit.org/documentation/stubs/qiskit.providers.aer.noise.ReadoutError.html Although it is easy to obtain such an error for 1-qubit for IBMs ...
Marion's user avatar
  • 625
2 votes
1 answer
236 views

Implementing Readout Error in my circuit seems to have no effect whatsoever

I am trying to perform a simulation using Qasm in order to see how the readout error actually affects my circuit. The circuit I am implementing is a trivial one, the three qubit one that implements ...
Marion's user avatar
  • 625
3 votes
1 answer
142 views

How to set the meas_level and optimization_level in Quantum Azure IonQ provider?

I am performing a benchmark process using the Azure Quantum IonQ provider. I use Qiskit in the Azure platform, and I was trying to see how to control the transpiling and compiling process. It seems ...
Camilo160's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
62 views

Can ancilla-based parity measurements be used to detect errors in NISQ algorithms?

Measuring stabilizer eigenvalues is a fundamental part of quantum error correction. However, I was wondering if the idea of measuring a stabilizer using an ancilla could be useful in other contexts as ...
Lior's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
184 views

Surface Code Eigenstates as Circles

I learned that logical $|0\rangle$ of surface code, is an eigenstate, where all stabilizers are +1 value, and since the z-stabilizer is enforcing an even amount of edged in each node, and the x-stab ...
Ron Cohen's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
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Code Length of most Naive Repetition Code

What is the formula or answer to the following coding: I would like to get logical qubit with logical error rate of $P_L=1E-10$ or $P_L=1E-19$ for Shor's algorithm, but I would like to know how many ...
Ron Cohen's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
639 views

Add noise_model when using 'ibmq_qasm_simulator' backend and provider.runtime.run() function

I am trying to test some qiskit code that employs readout-error mitigation using the ibmq_qasm_simulator backend and Qiskit Runtime. I am getting the backend as ...
Ruth V.'s user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
44 views

Qubit State (theta,phi) Dependence on the Readout Error

Do the readout errors on the publicly available IBM quantum computers have any dependency on the state being measured? That is, if we are measuring a qubit in the state $\cos({\theta/2}) |0> + e^{i\...
user206444's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
262 views

Surface Code - Convert Control Error to Clifford Error

I am simulating surface code, in order to find the logical error as a function of control error in my circuit. Each of my data qubits is multiplied in control error = a unitary matrix $U$ which is ...
Ron Cohen's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
525 views

How to calculate the number of qubits in surface code, for given physical error rate

I am working on improvement of physical qubit error probability. I would like to know: how to calculate the size I need for surface code, given that I need that the logical error probability will be ...
Ron Cohen's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
398 views

Why does making a quantum circuit more noise resilient make it easier to simulate classically?

I was reading Quantum Computing in the NISQ era and beyond (John Preskill, 2018) but I didn't get this point on pages 9-10: There is a substantial opportunity for experimentalists and theorists, ...
Fezudo's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Correcting Coherent errors with Surface Codes

Following this article: Correcting coherent errors with surface codes I wonder about the modeling of coherent error and its effect on syndrome after measurement. They say that applying U on the ...
Ron Cohen's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
123 views

Which improvements can we expect in Quantum Error Correction?

According to this article: The surface code is currently the most widely pursued quantum error correction scheme (Emphasis mine). It is also said: However, there are drawbacks to the surface code, ...
Tristan Nemoz's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
383 views

How can I add readout error in constructing a quantum noise model?

I'm trying to construct a quantum noise model with readout error only: qiskit.providers.aer.noise.NoiseModel.add_readout_error. However, when I try to specify the ...
ZR-'s user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
176 views

Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem for Quantum Evolution

In classical digital signal processing one can try to identify the dynamics of a system by sampling its evolution from an initial time $t_0$ to a final time $t_1$. Sampling $N$ times results in a ...
Marion's user avatar
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