Questions tagged [error-correction]

Quantum error correction (QEC) is a collection of techniques to protect quantum information from decoherence and other quantum noise, to realise fault-tolerant quantum computation. Quantum error correction is expected to be essential for practical quantum computation in the face of noise on stored quantum information, faulty quantum gates, faulty state preparations, and faulty measurements. (Wikipedia)

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31
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2answers
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What is 'Surface Code'? (Quantum Error Correction)

I am studying Quantum Computing and Information. I have crossed with the 'Surface Code' phrase but I can't find a brief explanation of what it is and how it works. Hopefully you guys can help me with ...
23
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3answers
1k views

What level of "confidence" of the result from a quantum computer is possible?

At a very basic level, reading or measuring a qubit forces it to be in one state or the other, so the operation of a quantum computer to gain a result collapses the state into one of many ...
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4answers
1k views

Is error correction necessary?

Why do you need error correction? My understanding is that error correction removes errors from noise, but noise should average itself out. To make clear what I'm asking, why can't you, instead of ...
21
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4answers
3k views

Why can't there be an error correcting code with fewer than 5 qubits?

I read about 9-qubit, 7-qubit and 5-qubit error correcting codes lately. But why can there not be a quantum error correcting code with fewer than 5 qubits?
21
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3answers
637 views

Which quantum error correction code has the highest threshold (as proven at the time of writing this)?

Which quantum error correction code currently holds the record in terms of the highest threshold for fault-tolerance? I know that the surface code is pretty good ($\approx10^{-2}$?), but finding exact ...
17
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3answers
2k views

What are magic states?

I wonder what are magic states, and a magic state gadget. While I'm reading a paper, these terms frequently appear.
17
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3answers
808 views

Connection between stabilizer generators and parity check matrices in the Steane code

I'm working through Mike and Ike (Nielsen and Chuang) for self-study, and I'm reading about stabilizer codes in Chapter 10. I'm an electrical engineer with somewhat of a background in classical ...
16
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1answer
376 views

How does magic state distillation overhead scale compare to quantum advantages?

I'm interested in the model of quantum computation by magic state injection, that is where we have access to the Clifford gates, a cheap supply of ancilla qubits in the computational basis, and a few ...
15
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5answers
540 views

Why do error correction protocols only work when the error rates are already significantly low to begin with?

Quantum error correction is a fundamental aspect of quantum computation, without which large-scale quantum computations are practically unfeasible. One aspect of fault-tolerant quantum computing that ...
15
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1answer
2k views

Is the Pauli group for $n$-qubits a basis for $\mathbb{C}^{2^n\times 2^n}$?

The Pauli group for $n$-qubits is defined as $G_n=\{I,X,Y,Z \}^{\otimes n}$, that is as the group containing all the possible tensor products between $n$ Pauli matrices. It is clear that the Pauli ...
14
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1answer
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Is Gil Kalai's argument against topological quantum computers sound?

In a lecture, recorded on Youtube, Gil Kalai presents a 'deduction' for why topological quantum computers will not work. The interesting part is that he claims this is a stronger argument than the ...
14
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1answer
599 views

What is quantum t-design (intuitive understanding)?

I started reading about Randomized Benchmarking (this paper, arxiv version) and came across "unitary 2 design." After some googling, I found that the Clifford group being a unitary 2 design is a ...
13
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1answer
1k views

What is the Helstrom measurement?

I have been reading the paper Belief propagation decoding of quantum channels by passing quantum messages by Joseph Renes for decoding Classical-Quantum channels and I have crossed with the concept of ...
12
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2k views

What is the difference between "code space", "code word" and "stabilizer code"?

I keep reading (e.g. Nielsen and Chuang, 2010; pg. 456 and 465) the following three phases; "code space", "code word" and "stabilizer code" - but am having a difficult time finding definitions of them ...
12
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1answer
1k views

Twirling Quantum Channels: Pauli and Clifford Twirling

I am currently working through some papers related with approximations of more general quantum channels such as amplitude and phase damping channels to Pauli channels. The reason to do so is so that ...
12
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1answer
452 views

What is the leading edge technology for creating a quantum computer with the fewest errors?

Which technological path seems most promising to produce a quantum processor with a greater quantum volume (preferring fewer errors per qubit over more qubits), than Majorana fermions? The preferred ...
12
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0answers
162 views

Reference that explains how to read 3d topological diagrams for surface code computations

I like making diagrams to describe computations. For the surface code, an excellent tool is 3d topological diagrams. Here is an example diagram (made by me in SketchUp): The basic idea is that white ...
11
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5answers
553 views

What is quantum entanglement, and what role does it play in quantum error correction?

I want to understand what quantum entanglement is and what role does it play in quantum error correction. NOTE: As per the suggestions of @JamesWootton and @NielDeBeaudrap, I have asked a separate ...
11
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4answers
3k views

What is a Bacon-Shor code and what is its significance?

I'm at the AQC conference at NASA and everybody seems to suddenly be talking about the Bacon-Shor code but there is no Wikipedia page and the pdf that I gave a link to does not really explain what it ...
11
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2answers
866 views

Where do we put error correction code in quantum circuit?

First of all : I am a beginner in quantum computing. I would like to have a resource (or an answer if it is not complicated) explaining where we put the error correction codes in a quantum circuit. ...
10
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3answers
806 views

How is computation done in a 2D surface code array?

In a 2D surface code lattice, there are some data qubits and some measurement qubits. Suppose we want to do a 2-qubit computation, for example, let say, an X-gate on qubit-1 followed by a CNOT gate ...
10
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2answers
780 views

Intuition about Knill-Laflamme QEC conditions

The Knill Laflamme QEC conditions are stated this way: We consider a code space $C$ and its associated projector $P_C$. We consider a noise acting on our system: $E(\rho)=\sum_a E_a \rho E_a^{\...
10
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2answers
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Why is the Pauli group used for stabilizers?

When it comes to error correction, we take our stabilizers to be members of the Pauli group. Why is the Pauli group used for this and not, say, the group of all unitary matrices?
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1answer
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Violation of the Quantum Hamming bound

The quantum Hamming bound for a non-degenerate $[[N,k,d]]$ quantum error correction code is defined as: \begin{equation} 2^{N-k}\geq\sum_{n=0}^{\lfloor d/2\rfloor}3^n\begin{pmatrix}N \\ n\end{...
9
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2answers
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Allowed CNOT gates for IBM Q 5 quantum computer

I trying to do some tests in the IBM Q5 computer of IBM quantm experience for some simple error correction protocols, but as I can see, some operations between the qubits are not allowed. For example,...
9
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2answers
514 views

How could Majorana particles be used to improve quantum computers?

This recent press release claiming that Improved measurements bring final proof of Majorana particles closer than ever, which summarizes the results of a recent paper in Nature simply entitled "...
9
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2answers
502 views

Why do we use ancilla qubits for error syndrome measurements?

Consider the measurement of the syndrome for the standard 3-qubit code to correct bit flips: $$ \def\place#1#2#3{\smash{\rlap{\hskip{#1px}\raise{#2px}{#3}}}} \def\hline#1#2#3{\place{#1}{#2}{\rule{#3px}...
9
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2answers
515 views

What does quantum error correction code notation stand for?

I understand the notation for classical error correcting codes. E.g., "Hamming(7,4)" stands for a Hamming code that uses 7 bits to encode blocks of 4 bits. What does the notation for quantum error ...
9
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2answers
279 views

How does the size of a toric code torus affect its ability to protect qubits?

The Toric code Hamiltonian is: $\sum_{x,y}\left( \prod_{i\in p(x,y)} Z_{ixy} + \prod_{i\in v(x,y)} X_{ixy} \right),$ where the $v$ and $p$ are defined according to this picture (courtesy of James ...
9
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1answer
446 views

Significance of Clifford operations from quantum error correction perspective

In the literature on QECC, Clifford gates occupy an elevated status. Consider the following examples which attest to this: When you study stabilizer codes, you separately study how to perform ...
9
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2answers
356 views

Are all $[[n, k, d]]$ quantum codes equivalent to additive self-orthogonal $GF(4)^n$ classical codes?

Theorem 2 of [1] states: Suppose $C$ is an additive self-orthogonal sub-code of $\textrm{GF}(4)^n$, containing $2^{n-k}$ vectors, such that there are no vectors of weight $<d$ in $C^\perp/C$. ...
9
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Is there a good reason to use T-count minimization for circuits executed on current IBM open quantum systems (real hardware)?

As far as I understood from a series of papers, minimizing the T-count in Clifford+T circuits is essential for fault-tolerant ...
8
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2answers
1k views

Characteristics of the IBM quantum computer

On the IBM Quantum Composer website, there are characteristics of qubit computers. For example, ibmq_16_melbourne. But there is no description anywhere of what: ...
8
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2answers
430 views

Reference on MITxPRO Applications of Quantum Computing Professional Certificate Program

Recently I found out the Applications of Quantum Computing Professional Certificate Program that MITxPRO is offering for people interested in quantum computing. I saw that it is consisted of four ...
8
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2answers
463 views

Why does the surface (quantum error correction) code have such a high threshold for errors?

Is there an intuitive explanation why the surface code fares so much better than older quantum error correction codes in terms of its high error threshold, with thresholds of up to a few percent ...
8
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1answer
324 views

How to calculate the distance of stabilizer code?

How to calculate the distance of the stabilizer code [[n,k,d]]? It's better if you can make a 3-qubit example. And what's the relationship between d and Pauli group?
8
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2answers
519 views

Practical Implementations of QECCs in IBM Q Experience

I am learning how to program the IBM Q Experience quantum computers in order to learn more about how does it work and in order to perform some experiments in it. By doing so I was wondering what are ...
8
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1answer
538 views

What quantum channels are considered in quantum communication, and how does this choice affect the construction of error correction codes?

The so-called depolarizing channel is the channel model that is mostly used when constructing quantum error correction codes. The action of such channel over a quantum state $\rho$ is $$\rho\...
8
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1answer
216 views

Compact way of describing the set of all stabilizer groups for fixed number of physical qubits and encoded logical qubits

Fix $n$, the number of qubits and $k$, the number of encoded logical qubits. We can find a set of $(n-k)$ operators that all mutually commute and moreover form a group $S$. Let's assume that the group ...
8
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1answer
350 views

Intuition for Shor code failure probability

Consider the 9 qubit Shor code. This can detect and correct arbitrary single qubit errors, but if there are 2 or more single qubit errors before a correction round, the correction will fail. (In the ...
8
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1answer
109 views

What does "conjugation of coordinates" mean with respect to GF(4) (quantum) codes

In On the classification of all self-dual additive codes over $\textrm{GF}(4)$ of length up to 12 by Danielsen and Parker, they state: Two self-dual additive codes over $\textrm{GF}(4)$, $C$ and $...
8
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1answer
424 views

How does measurement calibration work?

One of the possible ways to improve the results of an experiment on the IBM machine using the Qiskit language is to use the measurement calibration methods. This is the link to the documentation. I ...
8
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1answer
94 views

How is the decoherence rate connected to the error rate?

I'm reading about the threshold theorem, which states that "a quantum computer with a physical error rate below a certain threshold can, through the application of quantum error correction schemes, ...
8
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0answers
61 views

Entanglement-assisted hashing bound for asymmetric depolarizing channels

I reading the paper EXIT-Chart Aided Quantum Code Design Improves the Normalised Throughput of Realistic Quantum Devices, which proposes the use of QTCs in order to do quantum error correction for ...
7
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3answers
714 views

2 ways to do the three qubits bit-flip code

I'm trying to understand the three qubits bit-flip code. I use the book of Phillip Kaye An introduction to quantum computing. In this book he introduce the three qubits bit-flip code with this ...
7
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2answers
342 views

Physical meaning of twirling in Randomized Benchmarking

I was reading papers on Randomized Benchmarking, such as this and this. (more specifically, equation 30 in the second paper) It appears to be some kind of averaging but I would like to have a more ...
7
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1answer
147 views

Collective measurements: importance and realization

I am reading the paper Polar codes for classical-quantum channels by Wilde and Guha, and it is stated the fact that collective measurements are necessary in order to aciheve the Holevo symmetric ...
7
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1answer
899 views

Shor code: phase flip error

For Shor's error correcting code, what is the intuition behind saying that the following circuit corrects the phase flip error? I realize that the circuit is trying to compare phases of the three 3-...
7
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2answers
96 views

What are reliable references on analytical and/or numerical studies of threshold theorems under faulty quantum error correction?

By "faulty", I mean that you can have errors on the ancilla qubits, you can have faulty syndrome extraction, etc.
7
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1answer
103 views

Translation of color/toric code to a small network of solid-state spins

Within Quantum Error Correction and stabilizer codes, toric codes/surface codes are very tempting, mainly for their high error threshold. For more background please check up, in our Physics sister (...

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