Questions tagged [error-correction]

Quantum error correction (QEC) is a collection of techniques to protect quantum information from decoherence and other quantum noise, to realise fault-tolerant quantum computation. Quantum error correction is expected to be essential for practical quantum computation in the face of noise on stored quantum information, faulty quantum gates, faulty state preparations, and faulty measurements. (Wikipedia)

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163 views

Reference that explains how to read 3d topological diagrams for surface code computations

I like making diagrams to describe computations. For the surface code, an excellent tool is 3d topological diagrams. Here is an example diagram (made by me in SketchUp): The basic idea is that white ...
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181 views

Is there a good reason to use T-count minimization for circuits executed on current IBM open quantum systems (real hardware)?

As far as I understood from a series of papers, minimizing the T-count in Clifford+T circuits is essential for fault-tolerant ...
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Entanglement-assisted hashing bound for asymmetric depolarizing channels

I reading the paper EXIT-Chart Aided Quantum Code Design Improves the Normalised Throughput of Realistic Quantum Devices, which proposes the use of QTCs in order to do quantum error correction for ...
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112 views

In what situation are three rounds of syndrome measurement required for fault-tolerance in the surface code?

I have heard multiple times the claim that three rounds of syndrome measurement required for fault-tolerance in the surface code. I'm not sure what situation would require this, as I think less would ...
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157 views

Why can a point in anti-de Sitter space be modeled as a logical qutrit and how is its error correction done?

This isn't my area but the recent Quanta article How Space and Time Could Be a Quantum Error-Correcting Code struck me as interesting. They mention: In their paper[1] conjecturing that holographic ...
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108 views

Quantum Belief Propagation decoding

I have been reading about a family of quantum error correction codes called Quantum Turbo Codes, which are the quantum analog of the well-known classical Turbo codes. This codes were introduced in ...
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27 views

Calculating symplectic dual of a code

Stabilizer codes can be treated as symplectic codes over $\mathbb{F}_2$ (or over $\mathbb{F}_p$ when taking about q-dits). While treating error class, symplectic dual of the code plays a crucial part (...
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131 views

Which codes can implement transversal non-Clifford gates

A paper Three-dimensional surface codes: Transversal gates and fault-tolerant architectures discusses 3D surface codes and shows that CZ and CCZ gates are transversal in [these] codes. They give a ...
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87 views

Is the quantum Singleton bound compatible with the Toric Code?

Note: Cross-posted on Physics SE. The quantum Singleton bound states that for an error-correcting code with $n$ physical qubits and $k$ encoded qubits, and some subsystem $R$ of $m$ qubits that can '...
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46 views

How to translate performance of two classical codes to a quantum CSS code?

I have a database of classical codes with simulation results in binary symmetric channel (BSC). The codes are defined by their parity check matrices $H$. I can pick pairs of codes and call them $H_x$ ...
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41 views

What do Z logical errors look like in 3d color codes?

I am trying to better understand (standard, not gauge) 3d color codes. In particular, I am working with the lattice proposed in 1. I understand how X error works, forming strings of the kind Vertex -&...
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67 views

Calculating length of code words in quantum information(compression)

I was studying this article by Boestrom and Felbinger. We define the significant length of the codewords in the preparation of the communication protocol : $$L_c(w_i) = \lceil log_k(i) \rceil$$ We ...
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33 views

Proper definition of logical operation in Q.E.C

My question is related to this topic I consider working with error correcting code on which I want to define logical operations. Let's assume I want to define a logical operation on logical qubit. In ...
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31 views

Degenerated vs non degenerated code: for both there always exist Kraus bringing to different orthogonal subspaces?

Context of my question I call: $\mathcal{M}(\rho)=\sum_a M_a \rho M_a^{\dagger}$ an error map, $C$ the code space. A CPTP recovery operation exists if and only if, the Kraus operator of the error map ...
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45 views

Density Evolution to Optimize QLDPC code design

Density Evolution is a simulative tool that models the behaviour of SPA (sum-product) decoders. It is useful because it enables the optimization of code designs so that extensive simulations can be ...
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90 views

There seems to be a problem with the implementation of identity gates on Qiskit as compared to the circuit composer

I have been experimenting with slowing down the decay of qubits, and as a control, I implemented a circuit with just identity gates for comparison. However, when I implement such circuits in Qiskit, ...
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18 views

Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem for Quantum Evolution

In classical digital signal processing one can try to identify the dynamics of a system by sampling its evolution from an initial time $t_0$ to a final time $t_1$. Sampling $N$ times results in a ...
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52 views

What is the algorithm for the optimal decoder in a quantum erasure channel?

I'm reading this paper : Holographic Quantum Error Correcting Codes and on page 3 they describe an optimal decoder for erasure channel. The description is for CSS codes but they claim that "it is ...
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48 views

Construction of arbitrary Normalizer Gates using H, S and CNOT Gates

This question is in reference to Exercise 10.40 of Nielsen and Chuang's textbook, which is an attempt to prove the theorem that any $n$ qubit Normalizer gate can be built out of $H$, $S$, and $CNOT$ ...
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25 views

Stabilizer codes: why is $N(S)/S$ homomorphic to the Pauli group on $k$ qubits

Given an abelian subgroup $S$ of the Pauli group on $n$ qubits with $r$ independent generators we obtain an $2^{n-r}$-dimensional subspace stabilized by $S$. By picking a basis for this space, it is ...
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55 views

translating between measurement based and circuit based quantum computation

I think I understand circuit based QC (CBQC) well enough; I know very little about MBQC. From what I read it seems that they are somehow "equivalent". I'd like to check this with a concrete ...
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2answers
81 views

Accuracy threshold theorem: what is the physical probability of failure exactly

In this famous paper is derived the quantum accuracy threshold theorem for concatenated codes. I have questions for the case errors are assumed to be local and Markovian. In the so called level-1 ...
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26 views

Clean definition and interpretation of "error" in quantum error correction

Let us consider a noise channel $\mathcal{E}(\rho)=\sum_i E_i \rho E_i^{\dagger}$, where $\{E_i\}$ are one choice of Kraus operators associated to it. I assume I will perform error correction and that ...
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33 views

How to do the counting when computing the fault tolerant threshold of quantum codes?

Here, I want to ask a basic question about how to compute the fault tolerance threshold of quantum codes. As I know, maybe, the most usual way is to do some simulations. Howvever, I am more intersted ...
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48 views

How to define POVM measurement operators for a composite quantum state

I have an evolved quantum composite state $\hat{\rho}^{\otimes{N}}$ that I retrieved from a quantum channel $\mathcal{E}$, Now I do know how to define a POVM for the evolved states $\hat{\rho}$ that ...
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43 views

Understanding "Restrictions on Transversal Encoded Quantum Gate Sets"

I am trying to understand a part from the article "Restrictions on Transversal Encoded Quantum Gate Sets" (arxiv link) by Eastin and Knill. In the article they talk about the importance of ...
2
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1answer
68 views

Need mathematical Calculation of input(T1,T2,f) and output(Readout Error)

I would like to know about the mathematical relations among T1, T2, frequency, readout error, and single-qubit error? This screenshot is from the ibmq-16 Melbourne excel data file.
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96 views

How does Teleportation based Error Correction (TEC) detect and correct loss/erasure errors?

I'm looking at papers like Demonstration of teleportation-based error correction in the IBM quantum computer (page) 10 and Role of syndrome information on a one-way quantum repeater using ...
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38 views

Obtaining low weight stabilizer generators

Suppose I know a set of stabilizer generators of a qubit quantum code. Is there a systematic (and possibly efficient) way to transform this set of generators to a different set (generating the same ...
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43 views

How is the theory of modular representation involved with error-correction?

Recently, I have heard that the theory of modular representation can be involved with error correction in quantum information theory. However, from a point of view of mathematician, I am still quite ...
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64 views

The process behind constructing a Stabilizer Code?

I am really puzzled when it comes to the construction of a stabilizer code. By that, I mean how to come up with the subgroup $S$ and the matrix generators $M= \{M_1, M_2, \cdots, M_{n-k}\}$? In ...
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24 views

Is manual or automated error correction more practically promising in the near term?

I'm curious if there's any consensus on this question among actual practitioners, but please feel free to close it if it's hopelessly opinion-based (since we've only taken baby steps toward the ...
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70 views

The importance of length-4 cycles in Quantum LDPC codes

It is a proven and well-known fact that length-4 cycles are detrimental to the performance of classical LDPC codes. This is due to the fact that such short cycles impair the decoding algorithm (Sum ...
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52 views

I thought we had already passed this error and qubit threshold?

As outlined in Quantum Computing Progress and Prospects published this year, on page 169-171 there is the diagram showing that we are at the 10's of qubits mark. Looking into the diagram further there ...
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25 views

How to detect and correct swap errors in a quantum circuit?

Let's assume that I have a density matrix $\rho$ that consists of $N$ qubits. If this density matrix undergoes an error-channel that swaps any two qubits with an equal probability, i.e. $$ \mathcal{E}(...
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20 views

How to take 3-point or more correlators into edge probability computation in surface code decoding?

In Google's work of repetition code (Exponential suppression of bit or phase errors with cyclic error correction), they use the method of Correlation Matrix to ...
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37 views

Why we need real-time feedback of Surface Code Decoding results?

When we use surface code to detect and correct errors, we can track the errors in software and change the computation results accordingly. So why do we need real-time feedback on decoding results? Are ...
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1answer
23 views

Qiskit noise model question (from textbook)

I'm reading the chapter Introduction to Quantum Error Correction using Repetition Codes and a code example demonstrates how to add depolarizing and pauli error. I have several questions. Is it not ...
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31 views

Simplifying equation for two qubit syndrome extraction code

In the paper Quantum Error Correction: An Introductory Guide, the author gives the following formula for a simple two qubit code (eq. 19 on the paper). $$ E|\psi\rangle_L|0\rangle_A \xrightarrow{\text{...
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54 views

What is the effect of measuring a node in a cluster state?

I'm still quite confused about the post-measurement state when a node of a cluster state is measured. As far as I'm aware, for a cluster state, a given node $j$ will have a stabilizer $$X_j\bigotimes_{...
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3answers
72 views

Quantum Error Correction implementation in Qiskit, OpenQASM or other languages based on Python

Where can we find example(s) of implementation code in a programming language of Quantum Error Correction, whether with the standard method of measurement or the automatic method without measurement (...
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21 views

How to write the general state of a corrupted n-qubit codeword in quantum error correction?

I am reading the chapter on quantum error correction in Quantum Computer Science by David Mermim. Which says, for a single qubit in a random state $|\Phi\rangle$ of the superposition of $|0\rangle$ ...
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50 views

How to implement Majority Vote

I am trying to boost the success propability of standart phase estimation by repeating the procedure enought times and taking a majority vote that will be encoded in a quantum register. My problem is ...
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57 views

Standard form Shor's code

I'm trying to solve exercise 10.57 in Nielsen-Chuang, where you have to obtain the standard form check matrix of Shor's code. I followed the procedure laid out in the earlier chapter but then realised ...
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52 views

What does it mean "the N uses of classical-quantum channel"?

I was reading a paper Quantum Polar codes by Mark M. Wilde, where he discusses the N uses of the channel in the classical-quantum channel setting. What does he mean by "multiple channel uses"...
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54 views

How to correct a phase error of the form $e^{ix}$

Is there a method to correct an error of the form of $e^{ix}$, acted on a two-qubit state without knowing the nature (the value of x) of the error? For example, $$\alpha|00\rangle +\beta|01\rangle+\...
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90 views

A question about quantum noise model

Now, I try to understand some concept of Quantum Noise Model and Quantum Channel. The Quantum Noise can be represented as a quantum operator with their own probability. As far as I concerned,(I dont ...
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0answers
24 views

Qubit relaxation time dependencies

The qubit relaxation time $T_1$ is an important parameter in order to describe the coherence time that a qubit presents, that is, the time in which its coherence quantum state is not compromised by ...
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58 views

How to calculate destabilizer group of toric and other codes

Some papers use the "destabilizer group" for more efficient simulations; see for example (page 3): https://www.scottaaronson.com/showcase2/report/ted-yoder.pdf "In addition to ...
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30 views

Quantum channels and error correction research groups

I am wondering which are the top universities or research groups through the world that are doing research in the topic of quantum error correction or quantum channels (decoherence noise models). I ...